Mobile Identity Protection: The Moderation Role of Self-Efficacy


  • Yasser Alhelaly NOVA Information Management School, NOVA University Lisbon, Lisbon
  • Gurpreet Dhillon University of North Texas, USA
  • Tiago Oliveira NOVA Information Management School, NOVA University Lisbon, Lisbon



Mobile identity protection, identity theft, self-efficacy, threat appraisal, identity protection awareness, mobile context, motivation


The rapid growth of mobile applications and the associated increased dependency on digital identity raises the growing risk of identity theft and related fraud. Hence, protecting identity in a mobile environment is a problem. This study develops a model that examines the role of identity protection self-efficacy in increasing users’ motivation intentions to achieve actual mobile identity protection. Our research found that self-efficacy significantly affects the relationship between users’ perceived threat appraisal and their motivational intentions for identity protection. The relation between mobile users’ protection, motivational intentions, and actual mobile identity protection actions was also found to be significant. Additionally, the findings revealed the considerable impact of awareness in fully mediating between self-efficacy and actual identity protection. The model and its hypotheses are empirically tested through a survey of 383 mobile users, and the findings are validated through a panel of experts, thus confirming the impact of self-efficacy on an individual’s identity protection in the mobile context.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Ali, R. F., & Dominic, P. (2022). Investigation of information security policy violations among oil and gas employees: A security-related stress and avoidance coping perspective. Journal of Information Science, 016555152210876.

Ameen, N., Tarhini, A., Shah, M. H., Madichie, N., Paul, J., & Choudrie, J. (2021). Keeping customers’ data secure: A cross-cultural study of cybersecurity compliance among the Gen-Mobile workforce. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106531.

Bada, M., Sasse, A. M., & Nurse, J. R. (2019). Cyber Security Awareness Campaigns: Why do they fail to change behaviour? International Conference on Cyber Security for Sustainable Society. Coventry University, United Kingdom.

Bagozzi, R. P. (2011). Measurement and meaning in information systems and organizational research: Methodological and philosophical foundations. MIS Quarterly, 35(2), 261–292.

Balapour, A., Reychav, I., Sabherwal, R., & Azuri, J. (2019). Mobile technology identity and self-efficacy: Implications for the adoption of clinically supported mobile health apps. International Journal of Information Management, 49, 58–68.

Ballout, H.I. (2009), "Career commitment and career success: moderating role of self‐efficacy", Career Development International, 14(7), 655-670.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.

Bandura, A. (1978). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1(4), 139–161.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147.

Bandura, A. (1986). National Inst of Mental Health. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY, USA: W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.

Bandura, A., Freeman, W. H., & Lightsey, R. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 13, 158-166.

Bandura, A., & Cervone, D. (1983). Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(5), 1017–1028.

Bandura, A., Freeman, W. H., & Lightsey, R. (1999). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 13(2), 158-166.

Bandura, Albert. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, Issue 01, pp. 71–81). (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.]), Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press, 1998.

Belanger, F., & Crossler, R. E. (2019). Dealing with digital traces: Understanding protective behaviors on mobile devices. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 28(1), 34–49.

Bose, I., & Leung, A. C. M. (2019). Adoption of identity theft countermeasures and its short-and long-term impact on firm value. MIS Quarterly, 43(1), 313–327.

Boss, S. R., Galletta, D. F., Lowry, P. B., Moody, G. D., & Polak, P. (2015). What do systems users have to fear? Using fear appeals to engender threats and fear that motivate protective security behaviors. MIS Quarterly, 39(4), 837–864.

Bulgurcu, B., Cavusoglu, H., & Benbasat, I. (2010). Information security policy compliance: An empirical study of rationality-based beliefs and information security awareness. MIS Quarterly, 34(3), 523–548.

Camp, L. J. (2004). Digital identity issues. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 23(3), 34–41.

Carter, M., & Grover, V. (2015). Me, myself, and I (T) Conceptualize Information Technology Identity and its Implications. MIS Quarterly, 39(4), 931–958.

Chen, Y., & Zahedi, F. M. (2016). Individuals’ internet security perceptions and behaviors: Polycontextual contrasts between the United States and China. MIS Quarterly, 40(1), 205–222.

Cheung, R. Y. M., & Ng, M. C. Y. (2019). Being in the moment later? Testing the inverse relation between mindfulness and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 123–126.

Chin, W. W. (1998). Commentary: Issues and Opinion on Structural Equation Modeling. MIS Quarterly, 22(1), vii–xvi.

Chin, W. W., Thatcher, J. B., & Wright, R. T. (2012). Assessing Common Method Bias: Problems with the ULMC Technique. MIS Quarterly, 36(3), 1003–1019.

Choudhary, P. K., Routray, S., Upadhyay, P., & Pani, A. K. (2022). Adoption of enterprise mobile systems–An alternative theoretical perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 67, 102539.

Churchill Jr, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64–73.

Cohen, J. (1992). Statistical power analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1(3), 98–101.

Compeau, D., Correia, J., & Bennett Thatcher, J. (2022). When Constructs Become Obsolete: A Systematic Approach to Evaluating and Updating Constructs for Information Systems Research. MIS Quarterly, 46(2), 679–711.

Compeau, D. R., & Higgins, C. A. (1995). Computer Self-Efficacy: Development of a Measure and Initial Test. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 189–211.

Craig, K., Thatcher, J. B., & Grover, V. (2019). The IT Identity Threat: A Conceptual Definition and Operational Measure. Journal of Management Information Systems, 36(1), 259–288.

Crossler, R. E., & Bélanger, F. (2019). Why Would I Use Location-Protective Settings on My Smartphone? Motivating Protective Behaviors and the Existence of the Privacy Knowledge–Belief Gap. Information Systems Research, 30(3), 995–1006.

D’Arcy, J., & Lowry, P. B. (2019). Cognitive‐affective drivers of employees’ daily compliance with information security policies: A multilevel, longitudinal study. Information Systems Journal, 29(1), 43–69.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(8), 982–1003.

Deng, G., & Fei, S. (2023). Exploring the factors influencing online civic engagement in a smart city: The mediating roles of ICT self-efficacy and commitment to community. Computers in Human Behavior, 143, 107682.

Dhillon, G., Abdul Talib, Y. Y., & Picoto, W. N. (2020). The Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment in Information Security Compliance Intentions. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 21(1), 5.

Dhillon, G., & Chowdhuri, R. (2013). Individual values for protecting identity in social networks. International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2013): Reshaping Society Through Information Systems Design, 3, 2177–2192.

Dinev, T., & Hu, Q. (2007). The centrality of awareness in the formation of user behavioral intention toward protective information technologies. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8(7), 23.

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1998). Attitude structure and function. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 269–322). New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Edwards, J., Miles, M. P., D’Alessandro, S., & Frost, M. (2022). Linking B2B sales performance to entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial selling actions. Journal of Business Research, 142, 585–593.

Ferrari, J. R. (1992). Psychometric validation of two procrastination inventories for adults: Arousal and avoidance measures. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14(2), 97–110.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood-Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.

Fisher Jr, E. B., & Rost, K. (1986). Smoking cessation: a practical guide for the physician. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 7(4), 551–565.

Fornell, C., & Bookstein, F. L. (1982). Two structural equation models: LISREL and PLS applied to consumer exit-voice theory. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 440–452.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388.

FTC. (2020). Consumer Sentinel Network. Federal Trade Commission, Data Book 2019.

Gao, W., Liu, Z., Guo, Q., & Li, X. (2018). The dark side of ubiquitous connectivity in smartphone-based SNS: An integrated model from information perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 185–193.

Gong, X., Zhang, K. Z. K., Chen, C., Cheung, C. M. K., & Lee, M. K. O. (2020). What drives trust transfer from web to mobile payment services? The dual effects of perceived entitativity. Information & Management, 57(7), 103250.

Goo, J., Kishore, R., Rao, H. R., & Nam, K. (2009). The role of service level agreements in relational management of information technology outsourcing: an empirical study. MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 119–145.

Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and Principles of Motivation. In D. C. Berliner, & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 63-84). New York, NY, USA: Macmillan.

Guillon, V., Dosnon, O., Esteve, M.-D., & Gosling, P. (2004). Self-efficacy and behavioral intention: A mediational analysis of the effects of commitment on career counseling. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 19(3), 315–332.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2012). Partial least squares: the better approach to structural equation modeling? Long Range Planning, 45(5–6), 312–319.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414–433.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., Danks, N. P., & Ray, S. (2021). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using R: A workbook. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature.

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review, 26(2), 106–121.

Hair Jr, J., Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications.

Hampel, N., Sassenberg, K., Scholl, A., & Ditrich, L. (2023). Enactive mastery experience improves attitudes towards digital technology via self-efficacy–a pre-registered quasi-experiment. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1–14.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In A. M. Rugman (Ed.), New challenges to international marketing (pp. 14-33). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.

Herath, T., Chen, R., Wang, J., Banjara, K., Wilbur, J., & Rao, H. R. (2014). Security services as coping mechanisms: an investigation into user intention to adopt an email authentication service. Information Systems Journal, 24(1), 61–84.

Herath, T., & Rao, H. R. (2009). Protection motivation and deterrence: a framework for security policy compliance in organisations. European Journal of Information Systems, 18(2), 106–125.

Huang, G., & Ren, Y. (2020). Linking technological functions of fitness mobile apps with continuance usage among Chinese users: Moderating role of exercise self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 103, 151–160.

Jaeger, L. (2018). Information security awareness: literature review and integrative framework. In Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. The USA.

Jaeger, L., & Eckhardt, A. (2021). Eyes wide open: The role of situational information security awareness for security‐related behaviour. Information Systems Journal, 31(3), 429–472.

Johnson, R. E., Rosen, C. C., & Djurdjevic, E. (2011). Assessing the impact of common method variance on higher order multidimensional constructs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 744–761.

Johnston, A. C., & Warkentin, M. (2010). Fear appeals and information security behaviors: An empirical study. MIS Quarterly, 34(3), 549–566.

Johnston, A. C., Warkentin, M., McBride, M., & Carter, L. (2016). Dispositional and situational factors: influences on information security policy violations. European Journal of Information Systems, 25(3), 231–251.

Johnston, A., Di Gangi, P. M., Bélanger, F., Crossler, R. E., Siponen, M., Warkentin, M., & Singh, T. (2023). Seeking rhetorical validity in fear appeal research: An application of rhetorical theory. Computers & Security, 125, 103020.

Ke, W., Liu, H., Wei, K. K., Gu, J., & Chen, H. (2009). How do mediated and non-mediated power affect electronic supply chain management system adoption? The mediating effects of trust and institutional pressures. Decision Support Systems, 46(4), 839–851.

Keith, M. J., Babb, J. S., Lowry, P. B., Furner, C. P., & Abdullat, A. (2015). The role of mobile‐computing self‐efficacy in consumer information disclosure. Information Systems Journal, 25(6), 637–667.

Khan, H., & Das, A. (2016). Security behaviors of smartphone users. Information Management & Computer Security, 24, 116.

Khan, N. F., Ikram, N., Murtaza, H., & Javed, M. (2023). Evaluating protection motivation based cybersecurity awareness training on Kirkpatrick’s Model. Computers & Security, 125, 103049.

Khando, K., Gao, S., Islam, S. M., & Salman, A. (2021). Enhancing employees information security awareness in private and public organisations: A systematic literature review. Computers & Security, 106, 102267.

Kim, H.-W., & Kankanhalli, A. (2009). Investigating user resistance to information systems implementation: A status quo bias perspective. MIS Quarterly, 33(3), 567–582.

Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Empowerment Series: Introduction to Social Work & Social Welfare: Critical Thinking Perspectives. (5th ed.). Boston, MA, USA: Cengage learning.

Kraiger, K., Ford, J. K., & Salas, E. (1993). Application of cognitive, skill-based, and affective theories of learning outcomes to new methods of training evaluation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 311 –328.

Lee, G., & Xia, W. (2010). Toward agile: an integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative field data on software development agility. MIS Quarterly, 34(1), 87–114.

Lee, Y., & Larsen, K. R. (2009). Threat or coping appraisal: determinants of SMB executives’ decision to adopt anti-malware software. European Journal of Information Systems, 18(2), 177–187.

Liang, H., & Xue, Y. (2009). Avoidance of information technology threats: A theoretical perspective. MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 71–90.

Liang, H., & Xue, Y. L. (2010). Understanding security behaviors in personal computer usage: A threat avoidance perspective. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 11(7), 394–413.

Lin, W., Xu, M., He, J., & Zhang, W. (2023). Privacy, security, and resilience in mobile healthcare applications. Enterprise Information Systems, 17(3).

Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–121.

Liu, J., Skoric, M. M., & Li, C. (2023). Disentangling the relation among trust, efficacy and privacy management: a moderated mediation analysis of public support for government surveillance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1–20.

Loh, X.-M., Lee, V.-H., Hew, J.-J., Tan, G. W.-H., & Ooi, K.-B. (2023). The future is now but is it here to stay? Employees’ perspective on working from home. Journal of Business Research, 167, 114190.

Maddux, J. E., & Rogers, R. W. (1983). Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19(5), 469–479.

Malodia, S., Mishra, M., Fait, M., Papa, A., & Dezi, L. (2023). To digit or to head? Designing digital transformation journey of SMEs among digital self-efficacy and professional leadership. Journal of Business Research, 157, 113547.

Manke, S., & Winkler, I. (2013). The habits of highly successful security awareness programs: A cross-company comparison. Securementem, Retrieved April 12, 2016, from

Markelj, B., & Bernik, I. (2015). Safe use of mobile devices arises from knowing the threats. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 20, 84–89.

Martens, M., de Wolf, R., & de Marez, L. (2019). Investigating and comparing the predictors of the intention towards taking security measures against malware, scams, and cybercrime in general. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 139–150.

Matook, S., Maggie Wang, Y., Koeppel, N., & Guerin, S. (2023). Metacognitive skills in low-code app development: Work-integrated learning in information systems development. Journal of Information Technology, 02683962231170238.

McCall George, J., & Simmons, J. L. (1978). Identities and interactions: An examination of human associations in everyday life. New York, NY, USA: Free Press.

Menard, P., Bott, G. J., & Crossler, R. E. (2017). User motivations in protecting information security: Protection motivation theory versus self-determination theory. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(4), 1203–1230.

Menard, P., Warkentin, M., & Lowry, P. B. (2018). The impact of collectivism and psychological ownership on protection motivation: A cross-cultural examination. Computers & Security, 75, 147–166.

Mombeuil, C. (2023). Consumers’ Willingness to Use Mobile Payments in Micro Business Transactions: Differences in Demographic Factors. Information Systems Frontiers, 1–14.

Mullins, J., & Sabherwal, R. (2022). Just Enough Information? The Contingent Curvilinear Effect of Information Volume on Decision Performance in IS-Enabled Teams. MIS Quarterly, 46(4), 2197–2228.

Ogbanufe, O., & Gerhart, N. (2020). The mediating influence of smartwatch identity on deep use and innovative individual performance. Information Systems Journal, 30(6), 977–1009.

Ogbanufe, O. M., & Baham, C. (2023). Using Multi-Factor Authentication for Online Account Security: Examining the Influence of Anticipated Regret. Information Systems Frontiers, 25(2), 897–916.

Ogbanufe, O., & Pavur, R. (2022). Going through the emotions of regret and fear: Revisiting protection motivation for identity theft protection. International Journal of Information Management, 62, 102432.

O’Leary-Kelly, A. M., Martocchio, J. J., & Frink, D. D. (1994). A review of the influence of group goals on group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 37(5), 1285–1301.

O’Sullivan, T. L., Corneil, W., Kuziemsky, C. E., & Toal‐Sullivan, D. (2015). Use of the structured interview matrix to enhance community resilience through collaboration and inclusive engagement. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 32(6), 616–628.

O’Sullivan, T., Tracey, S., & Corneil, W. (2022). Structured Interview Matrix (SIM) Facilitators’ Guide.

Pavlou, & Fygenson. (2006). Understanding and Predicting Electronic Commerce Adoption: An Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior. MIS Quarterly, 30(1), 115.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.

Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-Reports in Organizational Research: Problems and Prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.

Posey, C., Roberts, T. L., & Lowry, P. B. (2015). The impact of organizational commitment on insiders’ motivation to protect organizational information assets. Journal of Management Information Systems, 32(4), 179–214.

Reychav, I., Beeri, R., Balapour, A., Raban, D. R., Sabherwal, R., & Azuri, J. (2019). How reliable are self-assessments using mobile technology in healthcare? The effects of technology identity and self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 91, 52–61.

Rheea, H.-S., Kimb, C., & Ryuc, Y. U. (2009). Self-efficacy in information security: Its influence on end users’ information security practice behavior. Computers & Security, 28(8), 816–826.

Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Straub, D. W. (2012). Editor’s Comments: A Critical Look at the Use of PLS-SEM in" MIS Quarterly". MIS Quarterly, 36(1), iii–xiv.

Rogers, R. W. (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change1. The Journal of Psychology, 91(1), 93–114.

Rogers, R. W. (1983). Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In J. R. Cacioppo, & R.E. & Petty (Eds.), Social Psychology: A Sourcebook, pp. 153-176. New York, NY, USA: Guilford.

Sanyal, P., Menon, N., & Siponen, M. (2021). An Empirical Examination of the Economics of Mobile Application Security. MIS Quarterly, 45(4), 2235–2260.

Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2009). Self-efficacy theory. In K. R. Wenzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 35–53). Milton Park, UK: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Silic, M., & Lowry, P. B. (2020). Using design-science based gamification to improve organizational security training and compliance. Journal of Management Information Systems, 37(1), 129–161.

Soh, F., Smith, K., & Dhillon, G. (2022). The Relationship between Social Capital and Social Media Addiction: The Role of Privacy Self-Efficacy. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 26.

Souppaya, M., & Scarfone, K. (2013). Guidelines for Managing the Security of Mobile Devices in the Enterprise. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Stets, J. E., & Cast, A. D. (2007). Resources and identity verification from an identity theory perspective. Sociological Perspectives, 50(4), 517–543.

Stone, D. N. (1994). Overconfidence in initial self-efficacy judgments: Effects on decision processes and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 59(3), 452–474.

Straub, D., & Gefen, D. (2004). Validation Guidelines for IS Positivist Research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 13.

Straub, D. W. (1989). Validating Instruments in MIS Research. MIS Quarterly, 13(2), 147.

Stryker, S., & Serpe, R. T. (1994). Identity Salience and Psychological Centrality: Equivalent, Overlapping, or Complementary Concepts? Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(1), 16–35.

Tang, X., & Wei, S. (2022). How do ambidextrous leadership and self-efficacy influence employees’ enterprise system use: an empirical study of customer relationship management system context. Information Technology & People, 35(4), 1443–1465.

Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995). Understanding Information Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 144–176.

Thangavelu, M., Krishnaswamy, V., & Sharma, M. (2021). Impact of comprehensive information security awareness and cognitive characteristics on security incident management–an empirical study. Computers & Security, 109, 102401.

Thompson, N., McGill, T. J., & Wang, X. (2017). “Security begins at home”: Determinants of home computer and mobile device security behavior. Computers & Security, 70, 376–391.

Tubbs, M. (1994). Commitment and the role of ability in motivation: Comment on Wright, O’Leary-Kelly, Cortina, Klein, and Hollenbeck (1994). Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6), 804–811.

Tuckman, B. W. (1991). The Development and Concurrent Validity of the Procrastination Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(2), 473–480.

Vancouver, J. B., Thompson, C. M., & Williams, A. A. (2001). The changing signs in the relationships among self-efficacy, personal goals, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 605–620.

Vedadi, A., & Warkentin, M. (2020). Can Secure Behaviors Be Contagious? A Two-Stage Investigation of the Influence of Herd Behavior on Security Decisions. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 21(2), 3.

Venkatesh, V., Aloysius, J. A., Hoehle, H., & Burton, S. (2017). Design and evaluation of auto-ID enabled shopping assistance artifacts in customers’ mobile phones. MIS Quarterly, 41(1), 83–114.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., & Bala, H. (2013). Bridging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide: Guidelines for Conducting Mixed Methods Research in Information Systems. MIS Quarterly, 37(1), 21–54.

Verkijika, S. F. (2018). Understanding smartphone security behaviors: An extension of the protection motivation theory with anticipated regret. Computers & Security, 77, 860–870.

Verkijika, S. F. (2019). “If you know what to do, will you take action to avoid mobile phishing attacks”: Self-efficacy, anticipated regret, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 101, 286–296.

Wang, J., Li, Y., & Rao, H. R. (2016). Overconfidence in Phishing Email Detection. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(11), 759–783.

Wang, X., Li, Y., Khasraghi, H. J., & Trumbach, C. (2023). The mediating role of security anxiety in internet threat avoidance behavior. Computers & Security, 134, 103429.

Warkentin, M., Johnston, A. C., & Shropshire, J. (2011). The influence of the informal social learning environment on information privacy policy compliance efficacy and intention. European Journal of Information Systems, 20(3), 267–284.

Li, W., Leung, A., & Yue, W. (2023). Where is IT in Information Security? The Interrelationship among IT Investment, Security Awareness, and Data Breaches. MIS Quarterly, 47(1), 317–342.

Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 68–81.

Willison, R., & Warkentin, M. (2013). Beyond Deterrence: An Expanded View of Employee Computer Abuse. MIS Quarterly, 37(1), 1–20.

Witte, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs, 59(4), 329–349.

WITTE, K. (1996). Predicting Risk Behaviors: Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Scale. Journal of Health Communication, 1(4), 317–342.

Wu, D., Moody, G. D., Zhang, J., & Lowry, P. B. (2020). Effects of the design of mobile security notifications and mobile app usability on users’ security perceptions and continued use intention. Information & Management, 57(5), 103235.

Xiao, Y., & Spanjol, J. (2021). Yes, but not now! Why some users procrastinate in adopting digital product updates. Journal of Business Research, 135, 685–696.

Xu, Z., & Guo, K. (2019). It ain’t my business: A coping perspective on employee effortful security behavior. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 32(5), 824–842.

Yao, M.-L., Chuang, M.-C., & Hsu, C.-C. (2018). The Kano model analysis of features for mobile security applications. Computers & Security, 78, 336–346.

Yazdanmehr, A., Li, Y., & Wang, J. (2022). Does stress reduce violation intention? Insights from eustress and distress processes on employee reaction to information security policies. European Journal of Information Systems, 32(6), 1033–1051.

Yoo, C. W., Goo, J., & Rao, H. R. (2020). Is Cybersecurity a Team Sport? A Multilevel Examination of Workgroup Information Security Effectiveness. MIS Quarterly, 44(2), 907–931.

Zahedi, F., Abbasi, A., & Chen, Y. (2015). Fake-Website Detection Tools: Identifying Elements that Promote Individuals’ Use and Enhance Their Performance. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 16(6), 448–484.

Zambrano, F. R. R., & Rafael, G. D. R. (2018). Bring your own device: a survey of threats and security management models. International Journal of Electronic Business, 14(2), 146–170.

Zhou, Q., Li, B., Scheibenzuber, C., & Li, H. (2023). Fake news land? Exploring the impact of social media affordances on user behavioral responses: A mixed-methods research. Computers in Human Behavior, 148, 107889.




How to Cite

Alhelaly, Y., Dhillon, G., & Oliveira, T. (2024). Mobile Identity Protection: The Moderation Role of Self-Efficacy. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 28.



Research Articles