Australasian Journal of Information Systems https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis <p>The <cite>Australasian Journal of Information Systems</cite> (AJIS) is an international quality, peer reviewed journal covering innovative research and practice in Information Systems. It is an open access journal which does not levy any publication fees.</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> en-US <p>AJIS publishes open-access articles distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Non-Commercial and Attribution License&nbsp;which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and AJIS are credited. All other rights including granting permissions beyond those in the above license remain the property of the author(s).</p> AJIS.EiC@gmail.com (Professor Karlheinz Kautz) AJIS.EiC@gmail.com (Professor Karlheinz Kautz) Thu, 18 Feb 2021 18:03:03 -0800 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial for The Australasian Journal of Information Systems 2021 https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3853 Karlheinz Kautz Copyright (c) 2021 Karlheinz Kautz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3853 Mon, 27 Dec 2021 21:38:55 -0800 An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Knowledge Sharing Methods on Cyber Security Practice https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2177 <p>In a networked global economy, cyber security threats have accelerated at an enormous rate. The security infrastructure at organisational and national levels are often ineffective against these threats. As a result, academics have focused their research on information security risks and technical perspectives to enhance human-related security measures. To further extend this trend of research, this study examines the effects of three knowledge sharing methods on user security practices: security training, social media communication, and local security experts (non-IT staff). The study adopts a phenomenological method employing in-depth focus group interviews with 30 participants from eight organisations located in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. The study expands on understanding factors contributing to self-efficacy and security practice through various knowledge sharing channels. Current methods of periodical training and broadcast emails were found to be less effective in encouraging participants to develop security self-efficacy and were often ignored. Security knowledge sharing through social media and local experts were identified as supplementary methods in maintaining employees’ security awareness. In particular, social media is suggested as a preferred channel for disseminating urgent security alerts and seeking peer advice. Local security experts are praised for providing timely and contextualised security advice where member trust is needed. This study suggests that provisions of contemporary channels for security information and knowledge sharing between organisations and employees can gain regular attention from employees, hence leading to more effective security practices.</p> Hiep Cong Pham, Irfan Ulhaq, Minh Nguyen, Mathews Nkhoma Copyright (c) 2021 Hiep Cong Pham, Irfan Ulhaq, Minh Nguyen, Mathews Nkhoma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2177 Thu, 18 Feb 2021 17:59:51 -0800 Exploring the Digital Business Ecosystem of Internet of Things in Emerging Economies with a focus on the role of pseudo-private companies https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2719 <p class="JnlBody">The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the emerging drivers of the economy that transforms the business landscape and forms of collaboration and value creation. In this study, we performed a Delphi-based study to explore the digital business ecosystem (DBE) of IoT in emerging economies, focusing on power dynamics among actors, the processes of value co-creation, topologies, and critical success factors affecting the health of the ecosystem. We conducted two panels of a three-round Delphi study from 2017 through 2019 among Iranian IoT experts. This study identifies two types of the digital business ecosystems surrounding IoT in Iran. One type comprises only pseudo-private companies that have strong interactions with government organizations and state-owned banks. The other type of digital business ecosystem surrounding IoT technology comprises start-ups and private small and medium companies that have no interaction with pseudo-private companies. The interaction of start-ups and Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is mainly with universities. The study shows that pseudo-private companies play a dominant role in the Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Government (B2G) markets while SMEs and start-ups have a dominant role in the B2C market and promote creativity and innovation in the Business to Customer (B2C) market. This study extends the literature on&nbsp; digital business ecosystems with a focus on the health of the DBEs of IoT technologies and the potential for future innovation in the digital economy.</p> Tahereh Saheb, Faranak Hosseinpouli Mamaghani Copyright (c) 2021 Tahereh Saheb, Faranak Hosseinpouli Mamaghani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2719 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 17:27:03 -0700 Four Flavours of Customers: A dual-system perspective on self-service technology use https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2671 <p>Self-service technologies (SSTs) increasingly permeate retail spaces. To make their SST investments worthwhile, retailers need to turn enough customers into SST users. Previous research has uncovered the significance of habitual behaviour stemming from prior experience and situational factors from the environment on SST use. However, consumers are likely to vary regarding the extent they are driven by either habit or situational factors, suggesting that different types of consumers might exist in this regard. In this paper, we probe these consumer types in a real-life choice situation by studying the choice of selecting a checkout option (either staffed or self-checkout). We conduct a field study employing mixed qualitative methods by observing and interviewing customers checking out from retail stores. We discover four distinct customer types regarding the extent of reflexive (automatic) and reflective (deliberate) processing they use in their checkout selection: habitual traditional checkout users, habitual SCO users, situational users, and drifting users. We discuss the implications of our findings by linking the cognitive processing styles to the different stages of technology acceptance. Our main contribution lies in the development of a typology of consumers based on their selection between SST and human-delivered service.</p> Tapani Rinta-Kahila, Esko Penttinen Copyright (c) 2021 Tapani Rinta-Kahila, Esko Penttinen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2671 Sun, 20 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Determinants of Digital Divide using Demand-Supply Framework https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3029 <p>In last two decades, India has seen high economic growth. Concomitantly, there has been increase in availability and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). However, ICT penetration in India is much less when compared to global averages. There exists a substantive level of inequality in ICT access and use. Empirical studies on extent and nature of digital divide in India are few, especially those with explicit theoretical demand-supply framework, using consistent and reliable pan India data. This paper is an attempt to address these research gaps. It examines the digital divide in India across socio-economic classes and different political-geographic regions. The reduced form demand equations for two ICT instruments – Internet and mobile phone - are estimated separately for households aggregated at subnational level. A multi-variate econometric model identifies both demand and supply side factors shaping differential access by households. Findings indicate digital divide is a reflection of existing socio-economic divide. On the demand side, socio-economic inequality as manifest in the economic conditions of households, social category, occupational profile, age and education status are key determinants of district level digital divide. Further, supply side factors like availability of electricity, mobile network and extent of urbanization also play an important role.</p> Atulan Guha, Maitrayee Mukerji Copyright (c) 2021 Atulan Guha, Maitrayee Mukerji https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3029 Mon, 21 Jun 2021 17:11:13 -0700 Determining Boundary Conditions of Social Influence for Social Networks Research https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2233 <p>Social media is an important consideration in most behavioural research domains. Naturally, there is a wealth of studies employing social media as a rich context to derive insights. Over the years, such studies in information systems discipline too have made substantial knowledge contributions. With the proliferation of social media, researchers in recent times recognise some unique and fundamental differences in social media that would be beneficial to be considered in future studies. This paper contributes to the aforementioned theme by recognising five boundary conditions applicable to social media context, that would be applicable to a broad range research in information systems.</p> Dharshani Chandrasekara, Darshana Sedera, Caddie Gao Copyright (c) 2021 DARSHANA SEDERA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2233 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 "Humanized Robots": A Proposition of Categories to Understand Virtual Influencers https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3223 <p>Worldwide investments in influencer marketing are growing and could reach US$ 101 billion in 2020. But how can the brands shield themselves from scandals and other limitations of human influencers? The solution for many companies has involved robots. Virtual influencers (VI) are virtual robots that can emulate human appearance and behaviour and have become a trend in marketing. This study analyses how non-human influencers affect marketing communication by adopting two methods that are unpublished in the investigation of this phenomenon: a systematic literature review and netnography in conjunction with in-depth interviews with specialists resulting in the study identifying five categories (two of which are unpublished and unexplored in the literature) that can facilitate management decisions and also future studies around VIs: anthropomorphism/humanization, attractiveness, authenticity, scalability, and controllability. This study also identified more convergences than divergences between the virtual and the real and between humans and non-humans, generating challenges, opportunities, and guidelines for future research and for assisting management in making decisions concerning digital marketing.</p> Antonio Batista da Silva Oliveira, Paula Chimenti Copyright (c) 2021 Antonio Batista da Silva Oliveira, Paula Chimenti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3223 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:10:31 -0700 Examining Post-Adoptive Change of Enterprise System Implementations: A Socio-Technical Perspective https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2391 <p class="JnlBody">The implementation of a new enterprise system is a major change event for end-users. Since organisations need to modify their processes and structures to align with the enterprise system, users must learn and understand the new system as well as engage with it in their work practices. Past research has largely focused on the initial organisational adoption of an enterprise system. However, there has been little research concerning the change process in the post-adoption stage. This research addresses this gap by drawing on the punctuated socio-technical information system change (PSIC) model to explain the change through critical events, gaps between socio-technical components, responses to gaps, and outcomes. The research question is: How do socio-technical changes unfold in an enterprise system implementation? The study employs a qualitative interpretive case study method. The results reveal that changes in the structure of work following enterprise system implementation affect organisational performance, the social system, and individual work practices. This research contributes to a better understanding of technical and social changes and their impacts in the post-adoption of enterprise system implementation. The findings may assist organisations in providing appropriate resources and support for successful enterprise system implementation.</p> Wallayaporn Techakriengkrai, Angsana A. Techatassanasoontorn, Felix B. Tan Copyright (c) 2021 Wallayaporn Techakriengkrai, Angsana A. Techatassanasoontorn, Felix B. Tan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2391 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Information Technology Governance and the individuals' behavior: A cross-sectional study https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3141 <p class="JnlBody">Information technology (IT) is increasingly important to organizations and has become essential to the development of sustainable business growth. It is therefore necessary to adopt IT governance (ITG) mechanisms to ensure better solutions, sustainable growth, and better decision-making. As employee behavior is a competitive differential, this work focuses on the behavioral expression of ITG. It aims at analyzing ITG institutionalization's effect on the main dimensions of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) in Portugal. OCB describes individuals' voluntary commitment to an organization, including attitudes outside of their contractual functions. A descriptive-confirmative <em>ex post facto</em> research was conducted through survey research to 112 employees of IT-related departments and divisions from companies of all sizes in Portugal. The partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method was used to test the overall model. The general hypothesis was confirmed, showing that ITG institutionalization positively affects individuals' OCBs in Portuguese organizations. In practical terms, it is possible to show organizations that by implementing their ITG Mechanisms, they are increasing employees' OCBs and, consequently, organizational effectiveness.</p> Pedro Fernandes, Rúben Pereira, Guilherme Wiedenhöft Copyright (c) 2021 Pedro Fernandes, Rúben Pereira, Guilherme Wiedenhöft https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3141 Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:14:30 -0700 Effect of barrier related factors on perceived usefulness and ease of use of social media applications in the Australian healthcare sector https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2625 <p class="JnlBody"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif;">Despite the growing popularity of social media internationally, an extant review of the literature revealed a low rate of social media usage among healthcare professionals. While cynicism amongst healthcare professionals might be a reason, there might be other factors that could explain healthcare professionals’ reluctance to use social media in their practices. This research investigated potential barriers that affected healthcare professionals’ behavioural intention to use social media. A cross-sectional survey was randomly administered to 824 healthcare professionals working in Australian healthcare organisations. At the end of data collection, 219 usable responses were collected. Analysis of data via structural equation model (SEM) found that perceived trust, privacy threats, professional boundary, facilitating conditions and self-efficacy significantly influence the notion of perceived usefulness and ease of use. In addition, information quality directly influences health professionals’ perceived ease of utilising social media technology. The result also indicated that gender moderates the relationship between barrier-related factors and perceived usefulness and ease of use. This study’s findings have important implications for healthcare providers and policymakers regarding medical professionals’ perceptions of the potential challenges in using social media as well as developing strategies to counter misinformation against the backdrop of COVID-19.</span></p> Irfanuzzaman Khan, Jennifer Loh, Abu Saleh, Ali Quazi , Majharul Talukder Copyright (c) 2021 Irfanuzzaman Khan, Jennifer Loh, Abu Saleh, Ali Quazi , Majharul Talukder https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2625 Sun, 26 Dec 2021 15:46:46 -0800 Towards a Cashless Society: The Effects of Perceived Convenience and Security on Gamified Mobile Payment Platform Adoption https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2809 <p class="JnlBody"><span style="font-family: 'Palatino Linotype',serif;">Integrating gamification into mobile payment platforms incentivizes people to use digital alternatives for payment and could spur user-centric, platform-mediated interactions. This study examines the relationship between perceived convenience and perceived security on individual users’ intention to use a gamified mobile payment platform in Malaysia; a developing country envisioned to build a cashless society. The partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique is employed on a final sample of 388 online users. The results show that perceived convenience has a strong but indirect effect on the intention to use. Perceived security has a strong and direct effect on intention to use and mediates the relationship between perceived convenience and intention to use. Furthermore, the reliability aspect of security is a top priority concern for users interested in using mobile payment. The multi-functional aspect of convenience is a top priority concern to attract users who are not interested in using mobile payment at first. The study discusses theoretical and practical implications for developing a dual strategy of ‘ensuring convenience’ and ‘assuring security’ to encourage the gamified mobile payment platform adoption in developing countries. </span></p> P. C. Lai, Ewilly J.Y. Liew Copyright (c) 2021 P. C. Lai, Ewilly J.Y. Liew https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2809 Sun, 26 Dec 2021 15:51:39 -0800 Understanding the Perception of Information System Niche: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Validation https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2951 <p class="JnlBody">The number of niche technologies is growing, and they are getting noticed. However, the usage dynamics of such systems have not been explored. This study introduces the “niche” information systems (IS) construct to differentiate between mainstream and niche technologies and to illustrate how such differences potentially influence a person’s IS usage behavior. We posit that niche-ness is perceptual, and a measurement to gauge an individual’s niche perception in the domain of systems usage is desired. Resting on Optimal Distinctiveness theory, the study develops a novel conceptualization and operationalization of niche technology perceptions, focusing on social networking systems. Our main contribution includes the examination of the typology of the perceived niche, which results in the development and validation of an eight-item instrument for perceived technology niche through three studies. In addition, by placing the construct in a nomological network in a fourth study, we demonstrate that the perceived technology niche construct is related to IS continuance intention.</p> Mehdi Darban Copyright (c) 2021 Mehdi Darban https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2951 Sun, 26 Dec 2021 15:54:26 -0800 Trust Types and Mediating Effect of Consumer Trust in m-payment Adoption: An empirical Examination of Vietnamese Consumers https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3043 <p>This study employs a quantitative method to investigate different types of trust in m-payment adoption. It aims to overcome the limitation of previous studies which lack differentiating trust types and investigating any mediating effect to m-payment adoption. Data of the study was collected in Vietnam, one of fastest growing m-payment usage markets globally in 2019. The research found significant and positive impacts of m-payment provider trust, institution-based trust, and seller trust on the overall consumer trust, which then fully mediates the relationships of three trust types and m-payment adoption. The study also revealed that technology trust is embedded in m-payment provider trust, suggesting that the m-payment provider is considered fully responsible for ensuring technology protection from the perspective of the m-payment consumers. The results enable researchers to better understand trust characteristics in m-payment adoption as well as technology adoption in general. In addition, the findings are beneficial to practitioners such as policy makers, consultants, and m-payment service providers to improve different elements of consumer trust, leading to higher m-payment adoption.</p> Tuan Anh Nguyen, Hiep Cong Pham, Martin Dick, Joan Richardson Copyright (c) 2021 Tuan Anh Nguyen, Hiep Cong Pham, Martin Dick, Joan Richardson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3043 Sun, 26 Dec 2021 15:56:38 -0800 Health Seekers’ Acceptance and Adoption Determinants of Telemedicine in Emerging Economies https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3071 <p>This study investigates health seekers’ acceptance and adoption determinants of telemedicine services in a rural public hospital setting in an emerging economy using an adapted, extended Technology Acceptance Model. The present study pursued synthesising a plethora of existing literature and contextualised the significance of seven broad categories of potential determinants that significantly affect patients’ acceptance and adoption intentions: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, self-efficacy, service quality, privacy and data security, social influence, and facilitating conditions. The partial least square structural equation modeling technique was employed to test the conceptual model and research hypotheses. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 500 telemedicine users in randomly selected rural and remote areas of Bangladesh. Excluding self-efficacy and ease of use, five determinants expressively contributed to patients’ acceptance of telemedicine adoption, explaining 65% of the variance (R<sup>2</sup>) in behavioural Intention. The empirical findings have the quality of rigour obtained from rich data sets in health informatics and can contribute to build telemedicine into an institutionalised health infrastructure in Bangladesh and similar settings. Pertinent implications, limitations and future research directions were recommended to secure the long-term sustainability of telemedicine healthcare projects.</p> Khondker Mohammad Zobair, Louis Sanzogni, Luke Houghton, Kuldeep Sandhu, Md Jahirul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Khondker Mohammad Zobair, Louis Sanzogni, Luke Houghton, Kuldeep Sandhu, Md Jahirul Islam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3071 Sun, 26 Dec 2021 15:57:48 -0800 E-governance using mobile applications: A case study of India during the COVID-19 pandemic https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3129 <p class="JnlBody"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-weight: normal;">Healthcare initiatives backed by electronic-governance (e-governance) principles have contributed well to the extant literature and practice. Governments and healthcare systems across the world were taken aback by the swamping impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, they reacted quickly by developing contact-tracing mobile applications (apps) for creating awareness, providing information about various healthcare initiatives, and helping citizens to use the required information in case of emergency. The major challenge was to develop such e-governance interventions in a short time and ensure their quick adoption among the masses. Hence, it is worthwhile to investigate the factors leading to the adoption of such e-governance initiatives, especially in the context of a widespread pandemic situation. The present study is an attempt to analyze the factors driving the intention to use contact tracing mobile apps launched by governments globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. We have conducted the study in the context of India, where the government launched a community-driven contact tracing mobile app for its citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020. The study adopted an empirical approach to test how epistemic value, convenience value, conditional value, functional value, and privacy concerns influenced the intention to use this approach. The study found that intention to use such an app was positively influenced by functional value, which in turn was positively influenced by convenience and conditional values. It suggests that the convenience of using the app, perceived seriousness of the pandemic (i.e., conditional value), and utilitarian benefits (i.e., functional value) of the contact-tracing mobile app enhanced its acceptance. However, its novelty (i.e., epistemic value) and privacy concerns are not significant predictors of intention to use. The study recommends that the government should place more emphasis on improving the functional value which is driven by convenience and context-specific features to push the use of an e-governance initiative during the crisis. </span></strong></p> Sandeep Goyal, Anandan Pillai, Sumedha Chauhan Copyright (c) 2021 Sandeep Goyal, Anandan Pillai, Sumedha Chauhan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3129 Sun, 26 Dec 2021 15:58:51 -0800 Designing archival information systems through partnerships with Indigenous communities https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2917 <p class="JnlBody">I</p> <p class="JnlBody">Indigenous peoples in Australia have been heavily documented in colonial archives and collections. The past two decades have seen significant materials from Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums (GLAM) institutions being returned to Indigenous communities in Australia through physical or digital repatriation of materials. The digital return of materials requires both appropriate systems for returning both the digital collections, metadata and contextual information that relates to them, and agreements, policies, and procedures for meaningfully engaging with Indigenous communities throughout the process. Importantly, the information returned needs to be accessible, readable, and usable in local community contexts based on understanding local community needs. This paper discusses priorities around engaging with Indigenous peoples to reshape and build archival information systems and access points that support community requirements for digital return and management of cultural heritage materials in local settings. The paper discusses future priorities for designing archival information systems to support Indigenous sovereignty, including data stewardship and preservation approaches. These concerns are discussed and raised as part of the research and development of the global Mukurtu Content Management System (CMS) project, including within the New South Wales (NSW) Australian Mukurtu Hub.</p> Kirsten Thorpe, Kimberly Christen, Lauren Booker, Monica Galassi Copyright (c) 2021 Kirsten Thorpe, Kimberly Christen, Lauren Booker, Monica Galassi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2917 Sun, 03 Oct 2021 21:54:11 -0700 Knowledge Elicitation with Aboriginal Australian communities https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2907 <p class="JnlBody">This paper provides techniques for engagement and data collection in researching with Aboriginal Australian cultures, acknowledging significant differences in forms of communication and usage of Information Systems to the mainstream Australian culture. An approach to trust in relationships is developed by interpreting cultural aspects arising from the diverse relationships to technology developed by Aboriginal users. This work uses the existing Honeycomb model for social media development as a base framework for collaborative web systems and online knowledge sharing in the Indigenous domain. We present a series of product development research projects based in universities in NSW Australia, in particular user experience studies, to explain the relationship between the researchers and users and the products that are created in terms of the model. Some concepts and processes fundamental to engagement with Aboriginal Australian communities in the supply of appropriate information sharing technology are discussed in this context. For if Aboriginal people are to engage in IS development, we are sharing the knowledge or the culture that is embedded in the technology which can have detrimental effects. Either we are asking them to enter the culture that created the technology, that is assimilate, or we use engagement in design to change that technology to suit the culture.</p> Cat Kutay Copyright (c) 2021 Cat Kutay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2907 Sun, 03 Oct 2021 22:06:21 -0700 Digital Support for Indigenous Research Methodologies https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2885 <p class="JnlBody">Research undertaken by outsiders into issues of concern to Aboriginal communities frequently ignores community culture and the knowledge embedded within Aboriginal communities. Methodologies are adopted which perpetuate the colonialist mindset of non-indigenous Australians leading to failed solutions to Aboriginal problems. This paper describes an Aboriginal-led community-based research project, exploring the role of Aboriginal Australians in caring for, and transforming, their own communities. It focuses on the roles that Information Systems can play when providing an accessible platform for Aboriginal voices. The authors conducted an in-depth case study of one Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation (ACCO), the Illawarra Koori Men’s Support Group (IKMSG). The research consisted of a social network analysis (SNA) of the inter-organisational links of the IKMSG; interviews and focus groups with members of the IKMSG and the co-design of their first website. The prominence of the IKMSG in the SNA maps suggests that its work in the community is highly respected and that the model produced by this research can act as a guide for success in other ACCOs. The findings have been used to develop a theoretical model of Aboriginal community engagement and intervention. This model can enable authentic outcomes to projects which address Aboriginal concerns and support the conduct of community-led research in Aboriginal communities.</p> Kathleen Clapham , Helen Hasan, Bronwyn Fredericks, Dawn Bessarab, Peter Kelly, Valerie Harwood, Kate Senior, Marlene Longbottom, Elizabeth Dale Copyright (c) 2021 Kathleen Clapham , Helen Hasan, Bronwyn Fredericks, Dawn) Bessarab, Peter Kelly, Valerie Harwood, Kate Senior, Marlene Longbottom, Elizabeth Dale https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2885 Sun, 03 Oct 2021 22:22:55 -0700 Editorial for the Special Section on Indigenous Use of Information and Communication Technologies: Information Systems and the Practice of Indigenous Self-determination https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3661 Dominic O'Sullivan Copyright (c) 2021 Dominic O'Sullivan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3661 Sun, 03 Oct 2021 18:20:10 -0700 What’s behind a scratch card? Designing a mobile application using gamification to study customer loyalty: An experimental approach https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3203 <p>The use of game design elements (often called gamification) by firms to engage the customers has attracted attention in recent times. These game elements contribute to shaping up customer’s motivation and loyalty. Gamification is explored from the lens of both empirical as well as an experimental methodological standpoint. There still lacks substantial evidence that explains how and which types of rewards help to understand the customer's motivation. The study addresses this gap by designing an experimental study of 2x2 to address how gamified mobile apps used for making payments can help capture customer’s loyalty by offering them rewards. Data is collected from 385 customers who have been using mobile apps to make payments in the past. The data were tested to check if gamification positively helps the user hedonic and utilitarian motivation, which then positively impacts their loyalty. The study is also moderated by type of rewards (direct cash rewards v/s indirect third party partnered rewards) on the relationship of gamification and customer loyalty mediated through motivation. The results confirm that mobile payment apps' cash rewards are more useful, especially when the degree of uncertainty in the game element is high (scratch card). Additionally, they contribute to a higher degree of utilitarian benefits to the customers. The results contribute to the extension of the self-determination theory and stimulus organism response framework as well.</p> Abhishek Behl, Vijay Pereira Copyright (c) 2021 Abhishek Behl, Vijay Pereira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3203 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 20:20:14 -0800 Why have consumers opposed, postponed, and rejected Innovations during a pandemic? A Study of mobile payment Innovations https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3201 <p>The highly infectious nature of the COVID-19 virus has made the use of contactless payment methods a health exigency. Yet, consumers are resisting using mobile payments (m-payments) during the pandemic, a confounding behavior that needs to be better understood. The present study explicates this behavior by examining consumer resistance to m-payments during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, it provides more granular findings by measuring three levels of resistance/non-adoption, namely, postponement, opposition, and rejection. In this way, the study adds depth to the literature, which has largely examined resistance at an aggregate level to yield generic findings. Toward this end, the study draws upon the Innovation Resistance Theory (IRT) to propose that usage, value, risk, tradition, and image barriers influence the three levels of resistance/non-adoption differently. An artificial neural network analysis (ANN) of the data collected from 406 non-users of m-payments confirmed that the influence of the five barriers varies for the three levels of resistance/non-adoption. The results further suggest that the usage barrier is the most significant contributor to opposition and rejection intentions toward m-payments, whereas the image barrier is the most influential for postponement intentions. This study thus makes a useful contribution to theory and practice.</p> Shalini Talwar, Manish Talwar, Puneet Kaur, Gurmeet Singh, Amandeep Dhir Copyright (c) 2021 Shalini Talwar, Manish Talwar, Puneet Kaur, Gurmeet Singh, Amandeep Dhir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3201 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 20:23:22 -0800 Interactive app-based services: Recovery evaluations and the mediating role of satisfaction in the relationship between customer-brand engagement and electronic word of mouth https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3199 <p>Based on the theory of co-creation and resource-based theory, this study examines the differential impact of varying levels of customer participation in service recovery (firm, customer, and joint) on recovery satisfaction, customer-brand engagement (CBE), and electronic-word of mouth (e-WoM). Besides, using social exchange theory, this study examines the mediating role of consumers’ recovery satisfaction in the relationship between the types of service recovery and electronic word of mouth (e-WoM). The data to accomplish the research objectives was collected from 495 customers of interactive food delivery apps in India. The experimental design was used to collect the data. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and PROCESS macro techniques were used to test the hypotheses. The findings suggest that joint recovery results in better recovery evaluations such as CBE, recovery satisfaction, and e-WoM. Also, recovery satisfaction mediated the relationship between CBE and e-WoM. These findings provide empirical evidence for the linkages among the theory ofco-creation, resource-based theory, and social exchange theory. The marketers of interactive food delivery apps may use these findings to ascertain which recovery type they should emphasize to improve recovery satisfaction. Moreover, they are encouraged to take steps for improving recovery satisfaction as CBE affects e-WoM through recovery satisfaction.</p> Radhakrishna Bhimavarapu, Pankaj Kumar Mohanty, Anitha Acharya, Manish Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Radhakrishna B., Pankaj Kumar Mohanty, Anitha Acharya, Manish Gupta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3199 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 20:26:18 -0800 Does gamified interaction build a strong consumer-brand connection? A study of mobile applications https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3105 <p>In recent times gamification has increasingly been used by brands through smartphones to interact <br>effectively with their consumers. The core assumption for creating gamified environment is that it <br>will develop engagement with the consumer and motivate them to use their product or services. <br>However, beyond this assumption, there is dearth empirical evidence regarding how much effective <br>these gamified features are in engaging consumers. Therefore, this research analyses the relationship <br>between flow, brand engagement, self-brand connection and brand usage intent among consumers (N = 360)<br>of two gamified mobile applications. The findings show that the multidimensional construct flow formed <br>by five dimensions i.e. challenge, feedback, autonomy, immersion, and interaction positively associates <br>with cognitive brand engagement and emotional brand engagement. Additionally, both these forms of <br>brand engagement further strengthen consumers’ brand connection and motivate them for further use. <br>These results imply that gamified environment can augment consumer engagement with brand and <br>further increase usage intention. Therefore, gamification can be an effective technique in <br>brand management and brand managers can use it to strengthen relationship with consumers and increasing <br>possibility of using their brands.</p> Deepak Sangroya, Rambalak Yadav, Yatish Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 Deepak Sangroya, Rambalak Yadav, Yatish Joshi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3105 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 20:33:35 -0800 Editorial for the Special Section on Research on consumer evaluation of mobile applications: Does interactivity matter? https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3635 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Amit Shankar, Charles Jebarajakirthy, Pooja Kumari Copyright (c) 2021 Amit Shankar, Charles Jebarajakirthy, Pooja Kumari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3635 Thu, 18 Nov 2021 20:16:50 -0800 Research on Engaging Stakeholders Online https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3371 <p>This special section explores various theoretical models that can be used to identify the factors driving the engagement in this dynamic and volatile ecosystem whereby the stakeholders engage with each other for the co-creation of value. Thus, along with the bright side, this section gives a special emphasis on the dark sides of engaging stakeholders online, a lesser researched area.</p> Manish Gupta, Arpan Kumar Kar, Charles Jebarajakirthy Copyright (c) 2021 Manish Gupta, Arpan Kumar Kar, Charles Jebarajakirthy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3371 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 18:10:14 -0700 Demystifying the Dark Side of Social Networking Sites through Mindfulness https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2923 <p class="JnlBody">Over the last few decades, social networking sites (SNS) have evolved as an effective medium of communication for the world. They are instrumental in connecting people across time and space with just a click. However, the darker side of SNS has resulted in a deteriorated human connection between individuals in real life. The current study is an attempt to examine the compulsive usage of SNS in detail. It utilizes a sequential mixed method design to examine the negative outcome of compulsive SNS usage and the effect of mindfulness in overcoming them. Findings of the study suggest that compulsive usage mediates the relationship between mindfulness and exhaustion; further, this relationship is moderated by extroversion personality traits.</p> Yusuf Hassan, Jatin Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Yusuf Hassan, Jatin Pandey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2923 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 18:14:36 -0700 Do policymakers use social media for policy design? A Twitter analytics approach https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2965 <p>Social media has been used widely&nbsp;for communicating information, awareness, and promote public policies by government agencies. However, limited attention has been paid to the use of social media in improving the design of public policies. This paper explores to what extent citizens' responses/opinions expressed on social media platforms contribute to policy design.&nbsp; The paper analyzes discussion about the 'Ayushman Bharat' scheme on Twitter through social media analytics techniques (e.g., content analytics) and then traces the change in policy design over two years.&nbsp; To validate findings from Twitter data, and assess the evolution in policy design, we conducted in-depth interviews with experts and extensive document analysis. The paper reveals that consistently similar issues were raised by the experts in the past as well as by the citizens in the current scheme. However, over the period, the policy design has not changed significantly. Therefore, despite a strong social media presence, its optimum use to improve policy effectiveness is yet to be achieved. The paper contributes by exploring the role social media can play in the public policy process and policy design in developing countries' contexts and identifies gaps in existing social media strategies of public agencies.</p> Ashish Kumar Rathore, Dayashankar Maurya, Amit Kumar Srivastava Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish Kumar Rathore, Dayashankar Maurya, Amit Kumar Srivastava https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2965 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 18:17:08 -0700 Impact on addiction of online platforms on quality of life https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2761 <p>The excessive usage of online platforms is inviting several unwanted problems in the society. The excessive use of online platforms is adversely interfering in many social activities. This uncontrolled and excessive use of online platforms is causing addiction to the users. This is unexpectedly impeding the normal social flow of life culminating an adverse effect on the individuals’ quality of life. Studies reveal that age and gender have influence towards addiction. In this background, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors impacting addiction of online platforms. From studies of several addiction theories, some hypotheses have been formulated and a conceptual model has been developed. These have been validated by Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis with the help of survey involving 320 usable respondents. The study highlights that loneliness, perceived enjoyment, depression, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness act as vital predictors of addiction of online platforms that impacts quality of life. The moderating factors age and gender are found to have effective impacts on the influence of predictors on the addiction of online platforms. The article is ended mentioning the limitations of this study incorporating the scopes for the future researchers to nurture the untouched points.</p> Sheshadri Chatterjee Copyright (c) 2021 Sheshadri Chatterjee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2761 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 18:19:43 -0700 Gamifying the gig: transitioning the dark side to bright side of online engagement https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2979 <p>Gig work has transformed the work culture, globally. It’s sprawl, and popularity has also attracted excellent talent to join the gig workforce, most of which are online. While it has unfolded new avenues to showcase talent, its management irregularities have resulted in more significant dropouts. The study addresses a key research gap investigating the dropouts of gig workers on digital earning platforms by the moderating impact of gamified interventions on online platforms. We have based our arguments and derived our hypotheses based on social exchange theory and self-determination theory. A total of 367 responses were collected from white-collar gig workers who have completed tasks on one or more gig platforms in the past two years. We test our hypotheses using partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Results confirm that gamifying the online platform would enhance job satisfaction and productivity of gig employees, reducing the chances of quitting gig work. It is further observed that in the case of gig workers, high-performance work systems have a non-significant effect on the intentions to quit. The results contribute to the redesigning of online gig platforms with a layer of gamified artifacts to increase gig workers' retention.</p> Abhishek Behl, Pratima Sheorey, Kokil Jain, Meena Chavan, Isha Jajodia, Zuopeng (Justin) Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Abhishek Behl, Pratima Sheorey, Kokil Jain, Meena Chavan, Isha Jajodia, Zuopeng (Justin) Zhang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2979 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 18:20:57 -0700 The dark and light sides of engagement: an analysis of user-generated content in wildlife trade online communities. https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2987 <p>Recent research has focused on the role of user-generated content (UGC) in the dark side of engagement on social media. In this study, we apply this to the unique context of the online exotic wildlife trade, a critical area of research due its involvement in devastating global species loss as well as harms to human health and livelihoods. We first conduct qualitative analysis on a large data set of UGC with the automatic machine-learning lexical software Leximancer 4.5.1 to explore the discourse that occurs in comments of posts that promote behaviour change and demand reduction. Then, we complement this by testing an extended elaboration likelihood model to determine the nature of information processing that leads to positive comment valences. Our results show that motivation, opportunity and ability factors moderate the relationship between dual-processing routes and comment valence as well as influencing the likelihood of positive comment valences that indicate attitude change. This work extends the use of theory from Information Systems and Marketing to conservation and provides both conceptual and practical recommendations to encourage behaviour change and reduce the harmful effects of engagement.</p> Kim Feddema, Paul Harrigan, Shasha Wang Copyright (c) 2021 Kim Feddema, Paul Harrigan, Shasha Wang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2987 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 18:24:06 -0700 Modelling Customer Engagement Behaviour in Smart Retailing https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2967 <p class="JnlBody">Smart retail technologies are transforming the way companies engage with customers in retailing context. However, the real onset is unknown of which smart retail technology (SRT) characteristics and customer responses pave the way for customer engagement behaviour. This research investigates customer engagement behaviour in smart retailing by integrating meta-UTAUT and SRT characteristics. By analysing quantitative survey data using PLS path modelling, customer engagement manifestations are measured. Results show complex relationships between SRT characteristics (novelty, effectiveness, and interaction quality) and meta-UTAUT variables (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions) in influencing customers’ attitude, behavioural intention, and engagement behaviour towards smart retailing. Retailers can use the findings to influence customers’ attitudes towards smart retail technologies, encouraging them to display customer engagement behaviour.</p> Sanjit K. Roy, Gaganpreet Singh, Saadia Shabnam Copyright (c) 2021 Sanjit K. Roy, Gaganpreet Singh, Saadia Shabnam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2967 Tue, 22 Jun 2021 18:25:41 -0700 Special Section of Invited Papers from the 30th Australasian Conference on Information Systems https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3449 <p>This article introduces the papers which were invited for this special section.</p> Deborah Bunker, Annette Mills, Doug Vogel Copyright (c) 2021 Deborah Bunker, Annette Mills, Doug Vogel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/3449 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 18:29:23 -0700 The Coevolution of Routines and IT Systems in IT-enabled Organizational Transformation as an Instance of Digital Transformation: https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2855 <p class="JnlBody">This paper proposes a conceptual framework to study the phenomenon of IT-enabled Organizational Transformation (IT-enabled OT) as a coevolution process of organizational routines and a new IT system. The framework’s objective is to understand IT-enabled OT in a holistic and integrated manner by investigating how actors perceive, interpret, appropriate, and enact, the new IT system in their work routines as well as how they align the new system and these routines with the social order and structures of the organization. It allows the examination of the reciprocal interactions between different aspects of organizational routines and a new IT system to enhance the understanding of how change unfolds in an organization during the implementation, the adoption, use, and adaptation of a new IT system. We illustrate the scope, the analytic and conceptual strength of the framework with a number of examples from the literature and, lastly, discuss its ontological positioning. The paper concludes with a call for further research to empirically validate and refine the proposed framework.</p> Faqir Taj, Karlheinz Kautz, Vince Bruno Copyright (c) 2021 Faqir Taj, Karlheinz Kautz, Vince Bruno https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2855 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 18:36:30 -0700 Compliance with security guidelines in teenagers https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2953 <p class="JnlBody">What drives teenagers to comply with computer password guidelines? Using an extended form of protection motivation theory (PMT) (Rogers, 1983), we found that even if teenage computer users believe they are susceptible to being hacked, or that being hacked would be detrimental, it has no bearing on their password choices. Other motives outside of PMT also drive teenage security behaviour. Personal norms fully mediate the relationship between the perceived severity of threat and compliance intentions such that perceived severity is not sufficient to encourage compliance. Teenagers must actually feel obligated to comply. While personal norms may encourage compliance, concerns about feeling embarrassed or ashamed if their social media accounts are hacked into actually encourages compliance. On the other hand, peer influence, such as the fear of being teased about someone hacking into their account, discourages compliance. Our study contributes to understanding early security practices and highlights potential differences between adult and teenage behaviours to consider in future studies. For example, our findings suggest that password security guidelines alone will not suffice to ensure teenage compliance; they may need enforced password rules at the authentication level to eliminate any opportunity to violate password rules. Our study will benefit children and parents as well as organizations that have changed work practices to enable employees to work from home, but which places children in danger of clicking on malicious links on their parents’ computers. To our knowledge, this is the first password security study that applies PMT to examine computer-based security behaviours in teenagers.</p> Florence Mwagwabi, Jhee Hee Jiow Copyright (c) 2021 Florence Mwagwabi, Jhee Hee Jiow https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2953 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 18:47:23 -0700 Decision Support Systems in the Context of Cyber-Physical Systems https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2849 <p>Cyber-physical systems promise a complete networking of all actors and resources involved in production and thus an improved availability of information. In this context decision support systems enable appropriate processing and presentation of the captured data. In particular, production scheduling could benefit from this, since it is responsible for the short-term planning and control of released orders. Since decision support systems and cyber-physical systems together are not yet widely used in production scheduling, the aim of this research study is to analyse the adoption of these technologies. In order to do so, we conducted a qualitative interview study with experts on production scheduling. Thereby, we identified eleven influencing factors and 22 related challenges, which affect the adoption of decision support systems in production scheduling in the context of cyber-physical systems. We further discuss and assess the identified influencing factors based on the interview study. The results help to explain and improve the adoption of those systems and can serve as a starting point for their development.</p> Pascal Freier, Matthias Schumann Copyright (c) 2021 Pascal Freier, Matthias Schumann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2849 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 19:07:19 -0700 A Conceptual Tool to Eliminate Filter Bubbles in Social Networks https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2867 <p>Reliance on social media as a source of information has lead to several challenges, including the limitation of sources to viewers’ preferences and desires, also known as filter bubbles. The formation of filter bubbles is a known risk to democracy. It can bring negative consequences like polarisation of the society, users’ tendency to extremist viewpoints and the proliferation of fake news. Previous studies have focused on specific aspects and paid less attention to a holistic approach for eliminating the notion. The current study, however, aims to propose a model for an integrated tool that assists users in avoiding filter bubbles in social networks. To this end, a systematic literature review has been undertaken, and initially, 571 papers in six top-ranked scientific databases have been identified. After excluding irrelevant studies and performing an in-depth analysis of the remaining papers, a classification of research studies is proposed. This classification is then used to introduce an overall architecture for an integrated tool that synthesises all previous studies and offers new features for avoiding filter bubbles. The study explains the components and features of the proposed architecture and concludes with a list of implications for the recommended tool.</p> Alireza Amrollahi Copyright (c) 2021 Alireza Amrollahi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2867 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 19:14:08 -0700 Intelligent agent based framework to augment warehouse management systems for dynamic demand environments https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2845 <p>Warehouses are being impacted by increasing e-commerce and omni-channel commerce. The design of current WMSs (Warehouse Management Systems) may not be suitable to this mode of operation. The golden rule of material handling is smooth product flow, but there are day-to-day operational issues that occur in the warehouse that can impact this and order fulfilment, resulting in disruptions. Standard operational process is paramount to warehouse operational control but may preclude a dynamic response to real-time operational constraints. The growth of IoT (Internet of Things) sensor and data analytics technology provide new opportunities for designing warehouse management systems that detect and reorganise around real-time constraints to mitigate the impact of day-to-day warehouse operational issues. This paper presents the design and development stage of a design science methodology of an intelligent agent framework for basic warehouse management systems. This framework is distributed, is structured around operational constraints and includes the human operator at operational and decision support levels. An agent based simulation was built to demonstrate the viability of the framework.</p> Tania Binos, Vince Bruno, Arthur Adamopoulos Copyright (c) 2021 Tania Binos, Vince Bruno, Arthur Adamopoulos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2845 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 19:21:18 -0700