Australasian Journal of Information Systems <p>The <cite>Australasian Journal of Information Systems</cite> (AJIS) is an international quality, peer reviewed journal covering innovative research and practice in Information Systems. It is an open access journal which does not levy any publication fees.</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Australasian Association for Information Systems en-US Australasian Journal of Information Systems 1449-8618 <p>AJIS publishes open-access articles distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Non-Commercial and Attribution License&nbsp;which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and AJIS are credited. All other rights including granting permissions beyond those in the above license remain the property of the author(s).</p> An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Knowledge Sharing Methods on Cyber Security Practice <p>In a networked global economy, cyber security threats have accelerated at an enormous rate. The security infrastructure at organisational and national levels are often ineffective against these threats. As a result, academics have focused their research on information security risks and technical perspectives to enhance human-related security measures. To further extend this trend of research, this study examines the effects of three knowledge sharing methods on user security practices: security training, social media communication, and local security experts (non-IT staff). The study adopts a phenomenological method employing in-depth focus group interviews with 30 participants from eight organisations located in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. The study expands on understanding factors contributing to self-efficacy and security practice through various knowledge sharing channels. Current methods of periodical training and broadcast emails were found to be less effective in encouraging participants to develop security self-efficacy and were often ignored. Security knowledge sharing through social media and local experts were identified as supplementary methods in maintaining employees’ security awareness. In particular, social media is suggested as a preferred channel for disseminating urgent security alerts and seeking peer advice. Local security experts are praised for providing timely and contextualised security advice where member trust is needed. This study suggests that provisions of contemporary channels for security information and knowledge sharing between organisations and employees can gain regular attention from employees, hence leading to more effective security practices.</p> Hiep Cong Pham Irfan Ulhaq Minh Nguyen Mathews Nkhoma Copyright (c) 2021 Hiep Cong Pham, Irfan Ulhaq, Minh Nguyen, Mathews Nkhoma 2021-02-18 2021-02-18 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2177 Exploring the Digital Business Ecosystem of Internet of Things in Emerging Economies with a focus on the role of pseudo-private companies <p class="JnlBody">The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the emerging drivers of the economy that transforms the business landscape and forms of collaboration and value creation. In this study, we performed a Delphi-based study to explore the digital business ecosystem (DBE) of IoT in emerging economies, focusing on power dynamics among actors, the processes of value co-creation, topologies, and critical success factors affecting the health of the ecosystem. We conducted two panels of a three-round Delphi study from 2017 through 2019 among Iranian IoT experts. This study identifies two types of the digital business ecosystems surrounding IoT in Iran. One type comprises only pseudo-private companies that have strong interactions with government organizations and state-owned banks. The other type of digital business ecosystem surrounding IoT technology comprises start-ups and private small and medium companies that have no interaction with pseudo-private companies. The interaction of start-ups and Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is mainly with universities. The study shows that pseudo-private companies play a dominant role in the Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Government (B2G) markets while SMEs and start-ups have a dominant role in the B2C market and promote creativity and innovation in the Business to Customer (B2C) market. This study extends the literature on&nbsp; digital business ecosystems with a focus on the health of the DBEs of IoT technologies and the potential for future innovation in the digital economy.</p> Tahereh Saheb Faranak Hosseinpouli Mamaghani Copyright (c) 2021 Tahereh Saheb, Faranak Hosseinpouli Mamaghani 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2719 Four Flavours of Customers: A dual-system perspective on self-service technology use <p>Self-service technologies (SSTs) increasingly permeate retail spaces. To make their SST investments worthwhile, retailers need to turn enough customers into SST users. Previous research has uncovered the significance of habitual behaviour stemming from prior experience and situational factors from the environment on SST use. However, consumers are likely to vary regarding the extent they are driven by either habit or situational factors, suggesting that different types of consumers might exist in this regard. In this paper, we probe these consumer types in a real-life choice situation by studying the choice of selecting a checkout option (either staffed or self-checkout). We conduct a field study employing mixed qualitative methods by observing and interviewing customers checking out from retail stores. We discover four distinct customer types regarding the extent of reflexive (automatic) and reflective (deliberate) processing they use in their checkout selection: habitual traditional checkout users, habitual SCO users, situational users, and drifting users. We discuss the implications of our findings by linking the cognitive processing styles to the different stages of technology acceptance. Our main contribution lies in the development of a typology of consumers based on their selection between SST and human-delivered service.</p> Tapani Rinta-Kahila Esko Penttinen Copyright (c) 2021 Tapani Rinta-Kahila, Esko Penttinen 2021-06-20 2021-06-20 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2671 Determinants of Digital Divide using Demand-Supply Framework <p>In last two decades, India has seen high economic growth. Concomitantly, there has been increase in availability and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). However, ICT penetration in India is much less when compared to global averages. There exists a substantive level of inequality in ICT access and use. Empirical studies on extent and nature of digital divide in India are few, especially those with explicit theoretical demand-supply framework, using consistent and reliable pan India data. This paper is an attempt to address these research gaps. It examines the digital divide in India across socio-economic classes and different political-geographic regions. The reduced form demand equations for two ICT instruments – Internet and mobile phone - are estimated separately for households aggregated at subnational level. A multi-variate econometric model identifies both demand and supply side factors shaping differential access by households. Findings indicate digital divide is a reflection of existing socio-economic divide. On the demand side, socio-economic inequality as manifest in the economic conditions of households, social category, occupational profile, age and education status are key determinants of district level digital divide. Further, supply side factors like availability of electricity, mobile network and extent of urbanization also play an important role.</p> Atulan Guha Maitrayee Mukerji Copyright (c) 2021 Atulan Guha, Maitrayee Mukerji 2021-06-21 2021-06-21 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.3029 Research on Engaging Stakeholders Online <p>This special section explores various theoretical models that can be used to identify the factors driving the engagement in this dynamic and volatile ecosystem whereby the stakeholders engage with each other for the co-creation of value. Thus, along with the bright side, this section gives a special emphasis on the dark sides of engaging stakeholders online, a lesser researched area.</p> Manish Gupta Arpan Kumar Kar Charles Jebarajakirthy Copyright (c) 2021 Manish Gupta, Arpan Kumar Kar, Charles Jebarajakirthy 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.3371 Demystifying the Dark Side of Social Networking Sites through Mindfulness <p class="JnlBody">Over the last few decades, social networking sites (SNS) have evolved as an effective medium of communication for the world. They are instrumental in connecting people across time and space with just a click. However, the darker side of SNS has resulted in a deteriorated human connection between individuals in real life. The current study is an attempt to examine the compulsive usage of SNS in detail. It utilizes a sequential mixed method design to examine the negative outcome of compulsive SNS usage and the effect of mindfulness in overcoming them. Findings of the study suggest that compulsive usage mediates the relationship between mindfulness and exhaustion; further, this relationship is moderated by extroversion personality traits.</p> Yusuf Hassan Jatin Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Yusuf Hassan, Jatin Pandey 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2923 Do policymakers use social media for policy design? A Twitter analytics approach <p>Social media has been used widely&nbsp;for communicating information, awareness, and promote public policies by government agencies. However, limited attention has been paid to the use of social media in improving the design of public policies. This paper explores to what extent citizens' responses/opinions expressed on social media platforms contribute to policy design.&nbsp; The paper analyzes discussion about the 'Ayushman Bharat' scheme on Twitter through social media analytics techniques (e.g., content analytics) and then traces the change in policy design over two years.&nbsp; To validate findings from Twitter data, and assess the evolution in policy design, we conducted in-depth interviews with experts and extensive document analysis. The paper reveals that consistently similar issues were raised by the experts in the past as well as by the citizens in the current scheme. However, over the period, the policy design has not changed significantly. Therefore, despite a strong social media presence, its optimum use to improve policy effectiveness is yet to be achieved. The paper contributes by exploring the role social media can play in the public policy process and policy design in developing countries' contexts and identifies gaps in existing social media strategies of public agencies.</p> Ashish Kumar Rathore Dayashankar Maurya Amit Kumar Srivastava Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish Kumar Rathore, Dayashankar Maurya, Amit Kumar Srivastava 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2965 Impact on addiction of online platforms on quality of life <p>The excessive usage of online platforms is inviting several unwanted problems in the society. The excessive use of online platforms is adversely interfering in many social activities. This uncontrolled and excessive use of online platforms is causing addiction to the users. This is unexpectedly impeding the normal social flow of life culminating an adverse effect on the individuals’ quality of life. Studies reveal that age and gender have influence towards addiction. In this background, the purpose of this study is to identify the factors impacting addiction of online platforms. From studies of several addiction theories, some hypotheses have been formulated and a conceptual model has been developed. These have been validated by Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis with the help of survey involving 320 usable respondents. The study highlights that loneliness, perceived enjoyment, depression, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness act as vital predictors of addiction of online platforms that impacts quality of life. The moderating factors age and gender are found to have effective impacts on the influence of predictors on the addiction of online platforms. The article is ended mentioning the limitations of this study incorporating the scopes for the future researchers to nurture the untouched points.</p> Sheshadri Chatterjee Copyright (c) 2021 Sheshadri Chatterjee 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2761 Gamifying the gig: transitioning the dark side to bright side of online engagement <p>Gig work has transformed the work culture, globally. It’s sprawl, and popularity has also attracted excellent talent to join the gig workforce, most of which are online. While it has unfolded new avenues to showcase talent, its management irregularities have resulted in more significant dropouts. The study addresses a key research gap investigating the dropouts of gig workers on digital earning platforms by the moderating impact of gamified interventions on online platforms. We have based our arguments and derived our hypotheses based on social exchange theory and self-determination theory. A total of 367 responses were collected from white-collar gig workers who have completed tasks on one or more gig platforms in the past two years. We test our hypotheses using partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Results confirm that gamifying the online platform would enhance job satisfaction and productivity of gig employees, reducing the chances of quitting gig work. It is further observed that in the case of gig workers, high-performance work systems have a non-significant effect on the intentions to quit. The results contribute to the redesigning of online gig platforms with a layer of gamified artifacts to increase gig workers' retention.</p> Abhishek Behl Pratima Sheorey Kokil Jain Meena Chavan Isha Jajodia Zuopeng (Justin) Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Abhishek Behl, Pratima Sheorey, Kokil Jain, Meena Chavan, Isha Jajodia, Zuopeng (Justin) Zhang 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2979 The dark and light sides of engagement: an analysis of user-generated content in wildlife trade online communities. <p>Recent research has focused on the role of user-generated content (UGC) in the dark side of engagement on social media. In this study, we apply this to the unique context of the online exotic wildlife trade, a critical area of research due its involvement in devastating global species loss as well as harms to human health and livelihoods. We first conduct qualitative analysis on a large data set of UGC with the automatic machine-learning lexical software Leximancer 4.5.1 to explore the discourse that occurs in comments of posts that promote behaviour change and demand reduction. Then, we complement this by testing an extended elaboration likelihood model to determine the nature of information processing that leads to positive comment valences. Our results show that motivation, opportunity and ability factors moderate the relationship between dual-processing routes and comment valence as well as influencing the likelihood of positive comment valences that indicate attitude change. This work extends the use of theory from Information Systems and Marketing to conservation and provides both conceptual and practical recommendations to encourage behaviour change and reduce the harmful effects of engagement.</p> Kim Feddema Paul Harrigan Shasha Wang Copyright (c) 2021 Kim Feddema, Paul Harrigan, Shasha Wang 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2987 Modelling Customer Engagement Behaviour in Smart Retailing <p class="JnlBody">Smart retail technologies are transforming the way companies engage with customers in retailing context. However, the real onset is unknown of which smart retail technology (SRT) characteristics and customer responses pave the way for customer engagement behaviour. This research investigates customer engagement behaviour in smart retailing by integrating meta-UTAUT and SRT characteristics. By analysing quantitative survey data using PLS path modelling, customer engagement manifestations are measured. Results show complex relationships between SRT characteristics (novelty, effectiveness, and interaction quality) and meta-UTAUT variables (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions) in influencing customers’ attitude, behavioural intention, and engagement behaviour towards smart retailing. Retailers can use the findings to influence customers’ attitudes towards smart retail technologies, encouraging them to display customer engagement behaviour.</p> Sanjit K. Roy Gaganpreet Singh Saadia Shabnam Copyright (c) 2021 Sanjit K. Roy, Gaganpreet Singh, Saadia Shabnam 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2967 Special Section of Invited Papers from the 30th Australasian Conference on Information Systems <p>This article introduces the papers which were invited for this special section.</p> Deborah Bunker Annette Mills Doug Vogel Copyright (c) 2021 Deborah Bunker, Annette Mills, Doug Vogel 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.3449 The Coevolution of Routines and IT Systems in IT-enabled Organizational Transformation as an Instance of Digital Transformation: <p class="JnlBody">This paper proposes a conceptual framework to study the phenomenon of IT-enabled Organizational Transformation (IT-enabled OT) as a coevolution process of organizational routines and a new IT system. The framework’s objective is to understand IT-enabled OT in a holistic and integrated manner by investigating how actors perceive, interpret, appropriate, and enact, the new IT system in their work routines as well as how they align the new system and these routines with the social order and structures of the organization. It allows the examination of the reciprocal interactions between different aspects of organizational routines and a new IT system to enhance the understanding of how change unfolds in an organization during the implementation, the adoption, use, and adaptation of a new IT system. We illustrate the scope, the analytic and conceptual strength of the framework with a number of examples from the literature and, lastly, discuss its ontological positioning. The paper concludes with a call for further research to empirically validate and refine the proposed framework.</p> Faqir Taj Karlheinz Kautz Vince Bruno Copyright (c) 2021 Faqir Taj, Karlheinz Kautz, Vince Bruno 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2855 Compliance with security guidelines in teenagers <p class="JnlBody">What drives teenagers to comply with computer password guidelines? Using an extended form of protection motivation theory (PMT) (Rogers, 1983), we found that even if teenage computer users believe they are susceptible to being hacked, or that being hacked would be detrimental, it has no bearing on their password choices. Other motives outside of PMT also drive teenage security behaviour. Personal norms fully mediate the relationship between the perceived severity of threat and compliance intentions such that perceived severity is not sufficient to encourage compliance. Teenagers must actually feel obligated to comply. While personal norms may encourage compliance, concerns about feeling embarrassed or ashamed if their social media accounts are hacked into actually encourages compliance. On the other hand, peer influence, such as the fear of being teased about someone hacking into their account, discourages compliance. Our study contributes to understanding early security practices and highlights potential differences between adult and teenage behaviours to consider in future studies. For example, our findings suggest that password security guidelines alone will not suffice to ensure teenage compliance; they may need enforced password rules at the authentication level to eliminate any opportunity to violate password rules. Our study will benefit children and parents as well as organizations that have changed work practices to enable employees to work from home, but which places children in danger of clicking on malicious links on their parents’ computers. To our knowledge, this is the first password security study that applies PMT to examine computer-based security behaviours in teenagers.</p> Florence Mwagwabi Jhee Hee Jiow Copyright (c) 2021 Florence Mwagwabi, Jhee Hee Jiow 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2953 Decision Support Systems in the Context of Cyber-Physical Systems <p>Cyber-physical systems promise a complete networking of all actors and resources involved in production and thus an improved availability of information. In this context decision support systems enable appropriate processing and presentation of the captured data. In particular, production scheduling could benefit from this, since it is responsible for the short-term planning and control of released orders. Since decision support systems and cyber-physical systems together are not yet widely used in production scheduling, the aim of this research study is to analyse the adoption of these technologies. In order to do so, we conducted a qualitative interview study with experts on production scheduling. Thereby, we identified eleven influencing factors and 22 related challenges, which affect the adoption of decision support systems in production scheduling in the context of cyber-physical systems. We further discuss and assess the identified influencing factors based on the interview study. The results help to explain and improve the adoption of those systems and can serve as a starting point for their development.</p> Pascal Freier Matthias Schumann Copyright (c) 2021 Pascal Freier, Matthias Schumann 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2849 A Conceptual Tool to Eliminate Filter Bubbles in Social Networks <p>Reliance on social media as a source of information has lead to several challenges, including the limitation of sources to viewers’ preferences and desires, also known as filter bubbles. The formation of filter bubbles is a known risk to democracy. It can bring negative consequences like polarisation of the society, users’ tendency to extremist viewpoints and the proliferation of fake news. Previous studies have focused on specific aspects and paid less attention to a holistic approach for eliminating the notion. The current study, however, aims to propose a model for an integrated tool that assists users in avoiding filter bubbles in social networks. To this end, a systematic literature review has been undertaken, and initially, 571 papers in six top-ranked scientific databases have been identified. After excluding irrelevant studies and performing an in-depth analysis of the remaining papers, a classification of research studies is proposed. This classification is then used to introduce an overall architecture for an integrated tool that synthesises all previous studies and offers new features for avoiding filter bubbles. The study explains the components and features of the proposed architecture and concludes with a list of implications for the recommended tool.</p> Alireza Amrollahi Copyright (c) 2021 Alireza Amrollahi 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2867 Intelligent agent based framework to augment warehouse management systems for dynamic demand environments <p>Warehouses are being impacted by increasing e-commerce and omni-channel commerce. The design of current WMSs (Warehouse Management Systems) may not be suitable to this mode of operation. The golden rule of material handling is smooth product flow, but there are day-to-day operational issues that occur in the warehouse that can impact this and order fulfilment, resulting in disruptions. Standard operational process is paramount to warehouse operational control but may preclude a dynamic response to real-time operational constraints. The growth of IoT (Internet of Things) sensor and data analytics technology provide new opportunities for designing warehouse management systems that detect and reorganise around real-time constraints to mitigate the impact of day-to-day warehouse operational issues. This paper presents the design and development stage of a design science methodology of an intelligent agent framework for basic warehouse management systems. This framework is distributed, is structured around operational constraints and includes the human operator at operational and decision support levels. An agent based simulation was built to demonstrate the viability of the framework.</p> Tania Binos Vince Bruno Arthur Adamopoulos Copyright (c) 2021 Tania Binos, Vince Bruno, Arthur Adamopoulos 2021-04-06 2021-04-06 25 10.3127/ajis.v25i0.2845