Australasian Journal of Information Systems <p>The <cite>Australasian Journal of Information Systems</cite> (AJIS) is an international quality, peer reviewed journal covering innovative research and practice in Information Systems.</p> Australasian Association for Information Systems en-US Australasian Journal of Information Systems 1449-8618 <p>AJIS publishes open-access articles distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Non-Commercial and Attribution License&nbsp;which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and AJIS are credited. All other rights including granting permissions beyond those in the above license remain the property of the author(s).</p> Trust in Virtual Teams: A Multidisciplinary Review and Integration <p>Organizations have increasingly turned to the use of virtual teams (VTs) to tackle the complex nature of today’s organizational issues. To address these practical needs, VTs researchers from different disciplines have begun to amass a large literature. However, the changing workplace that is becoming so reliant on VTs comes with its own set of management challenges, which are not sufficiently addressed by current research on VTs. Paradoxically, despite the challenges associated with technology in terms of its disruption to trust development in VTs, trust is one of the most promising solutions for overcoming myriad problems. Though the extant literature includes an abundance of studies on trust in VTs, a comprehensive multidisciplinary review and synthesis is lacking. Addressing this gap, we present a systematic theoretical review of 124 articles from the disparate, multidisciplinary literature on trust in VTs. We use the review to develop an integrated model of trust in VTs. Based on our review, we provide theoretical insights into the relationship between virtuality and team trust, and highlight several critical suggestions for moving this literature forward to meet the needs of workplaces of the future, namely: better insight into how trust evolves alongside the team’s evolution, clarity about how to adequately conceptualize and operationalize virtuality, and greater understanding about how trust might develop differently across diverse types of virtual contexts with various technology usages. We conclude with guidelines for managing VTs in the future workplace, which is increasingly driven and affected by changing technologies, and highlight important trends to consider.</p><p><strong>Please note supplementary files link on right.</strong></p> Janine Viol Hacker Michael Johnson Carol Saunders Amanda L. Thayer Copyright (c) 2019 Janine Viol Hacker, Michael Johnson, Carol Saunders, Amanda L. Thayer 2019-01-21 2019-01-21 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1757 Understanding the effects of compromise and misuse of personal details on older people An increasing number of older adults are being affected by scams that can lead to the compromise and misuse of their personal details. Previous research has investigated factors that increase the likelihood of falling victim to identity compromise and misuse; less is known about the non-financial impacts that result from the event or about the factors that influence these impacts. The aims of this study are to describe the identity compromise events experienced by older adults, and explore the non-financial impacts (i.e. behavioural, physiological, emotional and psychological), and external factors that might influence these impacts. The study used data collected by an identity compromise and misuse support service in Australia. The manner of compromise/misuse, the type and number of credentials involved, and the organisations/agencies that were contacted for advice following the event, were recorded. It was found that most events had an online element, were detected by the victim, and involved multiple identity credentials. Participants experienced a variety of behavioural, physiological, emotional and/or psychological impacts. More impacts were experienced where the event had an online element, where more credentials were compromised and where more points of contact were made to reach comprehensive advice. Misuse was not a contributory factor to the impacts experienced. Implications for further research are discussed. Judy Watson David Lacey Don Kerr Paul Salmon Natassia Goode Copyright (c) 2019 Judy Watson, David Lacey, Don Kerr, Paul Salmon, Natassia Goode 2019-03-26 2019-03-26 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1721 A Goal-driven Risk Management approach for Distributed Agile Development Projects Software companies are now using Distributed Agile Development (DAD) in order to create high quality solutions, which aligns with the business priorities of lesser time and cost. Although, DAD is beneficial, there are significant risks involved in such projects. In order to minimize the adverse effect of risks on DAD projects, it is imperative to understand, how the risks impact the project performance goals including ‘Time’, ‘Cost’ and ‘Quality’. In this paper we present a goal driven approach for managing risks in DAD projects. This approach of risk management will enable project managers to identify the most important risks with respect to the goal to be achieved and focus on managing those risks first. The study shows that if ‘Time’ is a considered goal for a DAD project, the most important risks that would need consideration are related to requirement management, architecture changes and coordination issues between stakeholders. Similarly, if ‘Quality’ is the primary performance goal in a DAD project, it would be necessary to first deal with risks related to internal and external communication in the organization, team collaboration and requirement documentation availability. The awareness of top ranking risk factors that impact a particular project goal will assist the projects managers to control the risks in a way that the desired project goals can be achieved. Suprika Vasudeva Shrivastava Urvashi Rathod Copyright (c) 2019 Suprika Vasudeva Shrivastava, Urvashi Rathod 2019-04-29 2019-04-29 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1843 Dynamic Immersive Visualisation Environments: Enhancing Pedagogical Techniques As the speed of technical and scientific innovation accelerates past the speed at which humans can learn, the need for innovative pedagogical environments and techniques, such as immersive visualization environments, becomes essential and apparent. The primary purpose of this research is to explore the effectiveness immersive visualization environments may provide in combination with rich resources available on the Internet. An immersive visualization environment was designed and developed, and then an experimental research model was considered and conducted accordingly. Collected data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. The results showed a statistically significant difference in pedagogical outcomes when using an immersive visualization environment compared with traditional educational techniques. Immersive visualization environment models and experiments showed significant improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of pedagogical techniques, enhancing the learning and teaching of abstract and complex computing concepts. Max M. North Sarah M North Copyright (c) 2019 Max M. North, Sarah M North 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2109 Enterprise gamification systems and employment legislation: a systematic literature review A recent innovation in employee motivation systems is the introduction of ‘gamification’, which refers to the use of game design mechanics and principles to influence behaviour to enhance staff motivation and engagement. Enterprise gamification systems aggravate the differences in information availability between employers and employees, and employees who may be forced to adopt such systems may be placed under stress, worsening employment relationships in the workplace. Therefore, this research examines the potential legal implications of gamified employee motivation systems. This study undertook a systematic review of enterprise gamification and then used thematic analysis coupled with a review of legislation to examine whether gamification in workplaces meets the legal obligations of employers under their ‘duty of good faith’ in the New Zealand context. We find that carefully designed enterprise gamification systems should provide sufficient information and clarity for employees and support positive employment relationships. Deployments of enterprise gamification systems should be carefully planned with employee consultation and feedback supporting the introduction of an enterprise gamification system. Future research should look beyond the ‘good faith’ obligation and examine the relationship between gamification systems and the law on personal grievances. Sean Hinton Lincoln C. Wood Harminder Singh Torsten Reiners Copyright (c) 2019 Sean Hinton, Lincoln C. Wood, Harminder Singh, Torsten Reiners 2019-06-10 2019-06-10 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2037 An Integrated Effectiveness Framework of Mobile In-App Advertising Advertising in mobile apps has recently become one of the most popular advertising channels for businesses when its annual revenue has rapidly increased year over year. On this kind of advertising, the app publishers do not only play a critical role in the ad serving process but also receive a significant portion of the advertising revenue. Their goal of maximizing the revenue sometimes contradict with those of the advertisers. This research conceptualises the role of publishers and proposes an integrated effectiveness framework to further improve the effectiveness of mobile in-app advertising not for one but all participants involved. In specific, this research explores the factors being controlled by publishers and evaluates their impact on the common outcome metric of mobile in-app advertising. An application of the proposed effectiveness framework might help to increase the global mobile in-app advertising revenue significantly higher by balancing the benefits of all participants. Vinh Nguyen Xuan Truong Mathews Nkhoma Wanniwat Pansuwong Copyright (c) 2019 Vinh Truong, Mathews Nkhoma & Wanniwat Pansuwong 2019-08-20 2019-08-20 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1971 Avatars and Embodied Agents in Experimental Information Systems Research: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework Computerised graphical representations of human users and computer agents, known as avatars and embodied agents, have been extensively explored and investigated in Information Systems (IS) research and practice. Such digital representations can be employed in either 2D or 3D. In order to facilitate research on user and agent representations and their applications in IS, we conduct a systematic literature review and establish the current state of research on humans’ perceptions and behaviours when interacting with avatars and embodied agents. Our findings are based on an analysis of 90 articles published in top outlets in the IS field. This review identifies 1) different types of avatar and embodied agent-mediated interactions with users, 2) current application domains of such representations, 3) their dimensionality, 4) affected psychological constructs, and 5) practical considerations for the design of such digital representations. Finally, we discuss limitations of current research and, based on these, directions for future work. Hussain M. Aljaroodi Marc T. P. Adam Raymond Chiong Timm Teubner Copyright (c) 2019 Hussain M. Aljaroodi, Marc T. P. Adam, Raymond Chiong, Timm Teubner 2019-10-07 2019-10-07 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1841 An Automated Implementation of Academic Staff Performance Evaluation System based on Rough Sets Theory <p>The essence of evaluating employees’ performance in any tertiary institution is to realize the goals of the institution by measuring the contribution of each employee. Effective human resource evaluation is paramount to the development of any organization. An automated method is needed to remove the limitations and facilitate the duties of human resource management. In this paper, rough set theory, a mathematical technique that deals with vagueness and uncertainty of imperfect data analysis is adopted for the evaluation of academic staff profile for promotion, grants and other academic purposes. The entire appraisal process of academic staff was translated into a web-based application where every user can fill, edit, update, and submit the annual performance evaluation report form. The indiscernible property of rough set approach is a unique factor in assessing every academic staff under the department and faculty/school by the head of department and dean respectively. With this, the system generates an information table handling all the necessary conditions for promoting academic staff and the corresponding decisions taken. A model for rating publications was proposed to reduce the sentiments involved in manual rating. Reports were generated as output of each evaluation procedure. One hundred (100) dataset of academic staff of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria was used in the experiment to evaluate the performance of the system. The results of the system obtained score were compared with the institution standard and it was found that the system scores were above standard, the average precision of the system shows 60% effectiveness which showed that the proposed system is efficient for academic performance evaluation process.</p> Bolanle Ojokoh Victor Akinsulire Folasade O Isinkaye Copyright (c) 2019 Bolanle Ojokoh, Victor Akinsulire, Folasade Olubusola Isinkaye 2019-10-14 2019-10-14 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2033 An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between the Openness and Effectiveness of Strategic Planning <p>This paper focuses on a new approach for facilitating the participation of stakeholders in a process of strategic planning known as open strategic planning (OSP). OSP is recognised through three characteristics: inclusiveness, transparency, and the use of information technology (IT) tools. Drawing on the theoretical foundations of OSP, the research explores moderating factors impacting the relationship between these characteristics and OSP effectiveness by referring to qualitative data obtained from two open strategic planning projects. A secondary aim was to examine how stakeholders interpret the effectiveness of OSP in an organisational setting. Results indicate various moderating factors (level of trust, IT literacy, and diversity of participants) impacted the relationship between the characteristics of OSP and strategic planning effectiveness. The study formulates eight propositions, each is discussed in relation to the existing literature on strategic planning effectiveness. This paper is significant as it is the first exploratory research linking openness and strategic planning outcomes.</p> Alireza Amrollahi Bruce Rowlands Copyright (c) 2019 Alireza Amrollahi, Bruce Rowlands 2019-11-04 2019-11-04 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2093 Preface to Research on Applied Ethics (Cybersecurity) This is the second special section on applied ethics for AJIS. As was the case for the first special section on ethics, of the various submissions, only three have been accepted for publication. This is not an indication that little work is being done in relation to cybersecurity ethics, but rather a reflection of the difficulty of getting published in a high quality journal. A great deal of research is being done in the area of ethics as regards cybersecurity, particularly in Europe as a result of the recent toughening of its privacy legislation and the implications that has for all manner of ethics and technology, from blockchain, to wearable robots and through to cybersecurity. An overview of those three articles follows, after which the guest editor backgrounds are described. Matthew Warren Oliver Burmeister Copyright (c) 2019 Matthew Warren, Oliver Burmeister 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2211 Machine Learning, Ethics and Law Recent revelations concerning data firm Cambridge Analytica’s illegitimate use of the data of millions of Facebook users highlights the ethical and, relatedly, legal issues arising from the use of machine learning techniques. Cambridge Analytica is, or was – the revelations brought about its demise - a firm that used machine learning processes to try to influence elections in the US and elsewhere by, for instance, targeting ‘vulnerable’ voters in marginal seats with political advertising. Of course, there is nothing new about political candidates and parties employing firms to engage in political advertising on their behalf, but if a data firm has access to the personal information of millions of voters, and is skilled in the use of machine learning techniques, then it can develop detailed, fine-grained voter profiles that enable political actors to reach a whole new level of manipulative influence over voters. My focus in this paper is not with the highly publicised ethical and legal issues arising from Cambridge Analytic’s activities but rather with some important ethical issues arising from the use of machine learning techniques that have not received the attention and analysis that they deserve. I focus on three areas in which machine learning techniques are used or, it is claimed, should be used, and which give rise to problems at the interface of law and ethics (or law and morality, I use the terms “ethics” and “morality” interchangeably). The three areas are profiling and predictive policing (Saunders et al. 2016), legal adjudication (Zeleznikow, 2017), and machines’ compliance with legally enshrined moral principles (Arkin 2010). I note that here, as elsewhere, new and emerging technologies are developing rapidly making it difficult to predict what might or might not be able to be achieved in the future. For this reason, I have adopted the conservative stance of restricting my ethical analysis to existing machine learning techniques and applications rather than those that are the object of speculation or even informed extrapolation (Mittelstadt et al. 2015). This has the consequence that what I might regard as a limitation of machine learning techniques, e.g. in respect of predicting novel outcomes or of accommodating moral principles, might be thought by others to be merely a limitation of currently available techniques. After all, has not the history of AI recently shown the naysayers to have been proved wrong? Certainly, AI has seen some impressive results, including the construction of computers that can defeat human experts in complex games, such as chess and Go (Silver et al. 2017), and others that can do a better job than human medical experts at identifying the malignancy of moles and the like (Esteva et al. 2017). However, since by definition future machine learning techniques and applications are not yet with us the general claim that current limitations will be overcome cannot at this time be confirmed or disconfirmed on the basis of empirical evidence. Seumas Miller Copyright (c) 2019 Seumas Miller 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1893 Entrapment behind the firewall: the ethics of internal cyber-stings Internal cyber-attacks (cyber-attacks which occur from within an organization) pose a serious threat to an organization’s security. One tool that organizations can employ to help them detect such threats is the <em>internal cyber-sting</em>. An internal cyber-sting involves an organization enticing its members into performing a (controlled) internal cyber-attack in order to apprehend them. However, there is (rightly) considerable moral consternation about employing such a tool; for it is deceitful and undermines trust. The aim of this paper is to present four separate actions that might be taken by organizations to strengthen their moral reason for employing internal cyber-stings. Morgan Luck Copyright (c) 2019 Morgan Luck 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1886 The Importance of Ethical Conduct by Penetration Testers in the Age of Breach Disclosure Laws. Across the globe, there has been a noticeable increase in the adoption of breach disclosure laws that are designed to protect the privacy of individuals. To validate the security controls implemented by an organisation to protect sensitive data, penetration testers are often engaged to test the security of information systems and to report any vulnerabilities. Using an interpretivist, constructivist approach, this article reports on a pilot study that compares USA and Australian approaches to ethical hacking. The need for regulation of ethical hacking to help protect organisations from unethical conduct was a recurring theme. With the changes in privacy regulations across the world, unauthorised disclosure of personal and privileged information could result in significant consequences. This paper explores the importance of ethical conduct by penetration testers based on empirical research and the potential for misuse of information. Georg Thomas Oliver Burmeister Gregory Low Copyright (c) 2019 Georg Thomas, Oliver Burmeister, Gregory Low 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1867 Emerging Insights of Health Informatics Research: A Literature Analysis for Outlining New Themes This paper presents a contemporary literature review to provide insights into the current health informatics literature. The objective of this study is to identify emerging directions of current health informatics research from the latest and existing studies in the health informatics domain. We analyse existing health informatics studies using a thematic analysis, so that justified sets of research agenda can be outlined on the basis of these findings. We selected articles that are published in the science direct online database. The selected 73 sample articles (published from 2014 to 2018 in premier health informatics journals) are considered as representative samples of health informatics studies. The analysis revealed ten topic areas and themes that would be of paramount importance for researchers and practitioners to follow. The findings provide an important foundational understanding for new health informatics studies. Shah Miah Jun Shen John W Lamp Don Kerr John Gammack Copyright (c) 2019 Shah Miah, Jun Shen, John W Lamp, Don Kerr, John Gammack 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2137 Tele-monitoring Technology as a Tool for Monitoring and Management of Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Telehealth interventions are designed to facilitate the remote exchange of information and data between patients and health care providers, improving the quality and safety of the patients and increasing efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health care providers. The development of telecommunications and virtual technology allowed a number of telehealth systems to be applied in different health care areas. These technologies can provide an alternative monitoring and solutions for decreasing the hospital readmission rates for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). In this paper, a systematic literature review regarding tele-monitoring and its use in the management of patients with CHF is conducted. The result indicated that a standardized tele-monitoring design would reduce a length of hospitalization and re-hospitalization rate. The other factors that moderate the effectiveness of the tele-monitoring intervention include quality of life, mortality rate, and disease-specific knowledge (health literacy). All these factors align with the consumer-centred principle of The Australian Safety and Quality Framework for Health Care. Elena Vlahu-Gjorgievska Swetha Nagapuri Khin Than Win Copyright (c) 2019 Swetha Nagapuri, Elena Vlahu-Gjorgievska, Khin Than Win 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1816 The Experiences of Three Different User Groups Using Personally Controlled Health Record for Multidisciplinary Care Team Personally Controlled Health Records (PCHR) are patient-centric tools which allow individuals to own, manage, access and share their health information online from anywhere, at any time. Patient-centric tools have received considerable interest and investment in recent years worldwide. These tools are thought to have the potential to increase individuals’ self-management and involvement in their own health, as well as improve healthcare efficiency and delivery. The aim of this study is to report and analyse the experiences of three different user groups using PCHR for Multidisciplinary Care Team (MDCT) including the advantages, disadvantages, barriers and obstacles, and the current state of PCHR. In order to achieve the aim of this study, sixteen interviews with key informants from three different user groups were conducted in Dunedin, New Zealand. Interviews were transcribed and analysed with thematic analysis. The key findings of this research showed that those who can benefit the most from PCHRs are the least able to use it. It suits those who have basic knowledge about computers and the internet and those who can afford to use them. PCHR is also best suited for individuals who are motivated about their health despite their health condition. However, more research is needed in the future with a larger sample, an easier to use PCHR, different population other than community health workers, patients with different chronic illnesses, and healthy patients. This research can be used as a basis and tested in future research on PCHR adoption. Nadia Ghandour Ahmad Ghandour Copyright (c) 2019 Nadia Ghandour, Ahmad Ghandour 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1900 The impact of telehealth technology on user perception of wellbeing and social functioning, and the implications for service providers The aim of the project was to evaluate the use of telehealth equipment in the homes of older community-dwelling people, and to review its social and economic impact. A mixed methods approach was adopted, involving interviews, observation and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Overall, the greatest benefit was apparent in those participants with a low familiarity with technology and low digital literacy, where changes in behaviours to prevent an exacerbation of their condition was possible. The user interface design reduced concern about using the technology. Changes achieved were through better compliance with medication and associated understanding of the impact on their vital signs and hence daily activities. This represented an improved health literacy and the economic benefits appear to be linked to that. Less benefit was observed by those who had been self-monitoring previously. A greater focus on specific conditions and improved self-management could strengthen the evidence for targeted economic benefits. Oliver Kisalay Burmeister David Ritchie Alison Devitt Eevon Chia Gregory Dresser Russell Roberts Copyright (c) 2019 Oliver Kisalay Burmeister, David Ritchie, Alison Devitt, Eevon Chia, Gregory Dresser, Russell Roberts 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1501 Overcoming carer shortages with care robots: Dynamic value trade-offs in run-time A rising elderly population and diminishing number of family and professional carers has led to calls for the intervention of care robots. This leaves the quality of robot-delivered care to be determined by designers, for profit companies, nursing codes of practice and conduct, potential user sample groups, etc. What is missing is the carer who consciously makes good ethical decisions during practice. Good care is ‘determinative in practice’. That is, a carer can make good decisions because they are making them within the carer-patient relationship. If a robot is to be capable of good care ethics on the same level as humans, it needs to be conscious and able to make dynamic decisions in practice. Moreover, a care robot must conduct patient interactions in appropriate ways, tailored to the person in its care, at run-time. This is because good care, as well as being determinative in practice, is tailored to the individual. The introduction of robotic care determined by limited stakeholders leaves customised care in danger and instead could potentially turn the quality of elderly care into ‘elderly management’. This study introduces a new care robot framework—the attentive framework—which suggests using care centred value sensitive design (CCVSD) for the design process, as well as a computationally conscious information system (IS) to make practice-determinative decisions in run-time with extrinsic care value ordering. Although VSD has been extensively researched in the IS literature, CCVSD has not. The results of this study suggest that this new care robot framework, which is inspired by CCVSD, is competent in determining good, customised patient care at run-time. The contribution of this study is in its exploration of end-user willingness to trust known AI decisions and unwillingness to trust unknown AI decisions. Moreover, this study signifies the importance of, and desire for, good, customised robot-delivered care. Adam Poulsen Oliver K Burmeister Copyright (c) 2019 Adam Poulsen, Oliver K Burmeister 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1688 Understanding the Factors that Influence the Primary Appraisal of mHealth Tools in Developing Countries: An Exploratory Case-Study in Nigeria Shortages of health workers, infrastructural deficiencies, limited access to medical care are just a few of the many barriers to care in developing countries. The integration of smartphones and mobile devices into healthcare systems has been proposed to address some of the physical barriers to care and service delivery. These mHealth solutions extend the reach of medical care into rural areas of developing countries. However, it is not clear how mHealth solutions designed and tested in one developing region can be positively appraised for use in others. This study frames this problem using a coping theory approach based on an exploratory case-study to understand the factors that influence primary appraisal of smartphone-enabled clinical guidelines (mHealth tool) for accessing, classifying and eliciting treatment recommendation for sick children under the age of five by rural healthcare workers (RHCWs). Findings identified a set of factors which are bound as an emerging explanatory positivity model that influence primary appraisal of an mHealth tool in a new context. These factors are the set of individual and social factors that governments, funding bodies and non-governmental organisations should consider before embarking on the introduction of an mHealth tool in rural communities of developing countries. It is envisaged that by understanding the factors that influence primary appraisal, that is, either as an opportunity or a threat, practitioners and organisations will support positive appraisal and minimise the occurrence of negative ones when introducing mHealth tools. These findings have implications for theory, practice, and future research as explained in the concluding section of this paper. Emmanuel Eze Rob Gleasure Ciara Heavin Copyright (c) 2019 Emmanuel Eze, Rob Gleasure, Ciara Heavin 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1815 A Design Construct of Developing Approaches to Measure Mental Health Conditions Mental health is an important determinant of communities’ well-being, influenced not only by individual attributes, but also by social and organisational environments in which people work and live. Despite studies examining mental health status among specific populations, few attempts are evident that focus on solution designs for detecting and measuring impact of mental health conditions. In this study, we develop a construct utilising design science research principles for outlining common vocabulary around the problem, and solution design relevant to a mental health management system. For the case of IT professionals, the developed construct is informed through a social-media based dataset containing more than 65,000 cells and 100 attributes potentially identifying influencing factors. Machine learning techniques are applied to the dataset to discover new findings for this specific group. It is anticipated that the analysis reported in this study would contribute in developing other electronic health management systems both for communities and healthcare professionals. Md Rafiqul Islam Shah Jahan Miah Abu Raihan M. Kamal Oliver Burmeister Copyright (c) 2019 Md Rafiqul Islam, Shah J Miah, Abu Raihan M. Kamal, Oliver Burmeister 2019-02-12 2019-02-12 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1829 Preface to Research on Role of Technology in Workforce Management Preface to Research on Role of Technology in Workforce Management Manish Gupta Jatin Pandey Jighyasu Gaur Neharika Vohra Copyright (c) 2019 Manish Gupta, Jatin Pandey, Jighyasu Gaur, Neharika Vohra 2019-03-04 2019-03-04 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2185 Talent Attraction through Online Recruitment Websites: Application of Web 2.0 Technologies Talent attraction is one of the major challenges for HR managers. With the rise of online recruitment channels, the number of applicants for a given job vacancy have increased substantially. In addition, the time taken in finding the right talent from the huge pool of applications has increased significantly, adding up to the hiring cycle. In today’s competitive labour market, employers need to highlight their brand image to prospective job-seekers, so that there is higher chance of recruiting the best talent that fits their manpower requirement. In this paper, an attempt is made in investigating that to what extent web 2.0 technologies such as podcasts, blogs and online employee testimonials may enhance the employer's brand value in the eyes of employed professionals. A multi-group moderated mediation analysis is conducted with 361 working professionals who are active online recruitment platform users. The analysis helps establish the effect of the perceived quality and credibility of career websites on job-seekers’ perception about the employer and on their subsequent application intention. The findings reveal positive effect of video podcasts and realistic employee testimonials presented through third party blogs on job-seekers’ perceived quality and credibility of the job advertisement. This phenomenon is reflected in their heightened attraction for the employer and eventual intention to apply for jobs at the firm. Pratyush Banerjee Ritu Gupta Copyright (c) 2019 Pratyush Banerjee, Ritu Gupta 2019-03-04 2019-03-04 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1762 Drivers of Employee Engagement in Global Virtual Teams Global Virtual Teams (GVTs) comprise geographically distributed groups of people collaborating with each other through technology-mediated communication. Members of GVTs are from different cultural backgrounds and time zones, who may (or may not) meet in person to take complex decisions or to deliver on the tasks that are of strategic importance. Though technology has enabled GVTs in almost all multinational organisations across all industries, keeping the members of GVTs engaged over the duration of the team's task or project could still pose a challenge for organisations. Employee engagement is defined as an employee's cognitive, behavioural and physical state directed towards organisational outcomes. While employee engagement has been researched in a collocated team context, it remains an under-researched area in the context of GVTs. Given that there are several characteristics of GVTs which are distinct from the collocated team, it warrants a separate inquiry, which we undertake in this study. This study uses the Job Demands-Resources theory of employee engagement to derive the drivers of employee engagement in GVTs. Through interpretive analysis of the lived experiences of members working in an organisation which extensively uses GVTs for achieving its strategic goals, we conceptualise five drivers of employee engagement, namely, cultural intelligence, communication (formal and informal), technology, trust and individual maturity. Farheen Fathima Shaik Upam Pushpak Makhecha Copyright (c) 2019 Farheen Fathima Shaik, Upam Pushpak Makhecha 2019-03-04 2019-03-04 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1770 Impact of Supervisors’ Perceived Communication Style on Subordinate’s Psychological Capital and Cyberloafing Drawing from Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), the purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of supervisor’s perceived communication style (passive, aggressive, and assertive styles) on subordinates PsyCap and cyberloafing. The study also tests the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between perceived communication style (CS) of supervisor and cyberloafing. In total, 680 full-time managerial employees from seven diverse firms in India were studied through questionnaire survey. Standard instruments were used to assess the constructs. Results revealed that perceived CS of supervisors-assertive, aggressive and passive styles have an impact on cyberloafing. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship between supervisors perceived assertive and aggressive perceived CS and cyberloafing. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of the study are discussed. Upasna A Agarwal Copyright (c) 2019 Upasnaa Agarwal 2019-03-04 2019-03-04 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1759 Expectation from Technology and Career Satisfaction: A study among IT Professionals in India Technology is an integral part of the work life of any information technology (IT) professional. However, the influence of technology on career related outcomes of IT professionals is at best limited. Using the P-E fit perspective, the present study investigated the implications of the perceived fit/ misfit between the expected and the experienced career growth and work-life balance from the technology the IT professionals are working in on their career satisfaction. Based on response surface methodology and polynomial regression analysis of the data collected from 286 IT professionals, the study found that not only the fit, but also the misfit between expected and experienced technology led career growth and work-life balance is important in explaining career satisfaction. Implications of the study for both research and practice were discussed. Gunjan Tomer Sushanta Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2019 Gunjan Tomer, Sushanta Kumar Mishra 2019-03-04 2019-03-04 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1761 Preface to the Special Section of Selected Papers from the 28th Australasian Conference on Information Systems Preface to the Special Section of Selected Papers from the 28th Australasian Conference on Information Systems Marta Indulska Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen Kai Riemer Copyright (c) 2019 Marta Indulska, Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen, Kai Riemer 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2343 Explaining the Development of Information Security Climate and an Information Security Support Network: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis Behavioural information security (InfoSec) research has studied InfoSec at workplaces through the employees’ perceptions of InfoSec climate, which is determined by observable InfoSec practices performed by their colleagues and direct supervisors. Prior studies have identified the antecedents of a positive InfoSec climate, in particular socialisation through the employees’ discussions of InfoSec-related matters to explain the formation of InfoSec climate based on the employees’ individual cognition. We conceptualise six forms of socialisation as six networks, which comprise employees’ provisions of (1) work advice, (2) organisational updates, (3) personal advice, (4) trust for expertise, (5) InfoSec advice, and (6) InfoSec troubleshooting support. The adoption of a longitudinal social network analysis (SNA), called stochastic actor-oriented modelling (SAOM), enabled us to analyse the changes in the socialising patterns and the InfoSec climate perceptions over time. Consequently, this analysis explains the forming mechanisms of the employees’ InfoSec climate perceptions as well as their socialising process in greater detail. Our findings in relation to the forming mechanisms of InfoSec-related socialisation and InfoSec climate, provide practical recommendations to improve organisational InfoSec. This includes identifying influential employees to diffuse InfoSec knowledge within a workplace. Additionally, this research proposes a novel approach for InfoSec behavioural research through the adoption of SNA methods to study InfoSec-related phenomena. Duy Dang-Pham Karlheinz Kautz Siddhi Pittayachawan Vince Bruno Copyright (c) 2019 Duy Dang-Pham, Karlheinz Kautz, Siddhi Pittayachawan, Vince Bruno 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1822 Effect of Self-efficacy and Emotional Engagement on Introductory Programming Students High failure rates appear to be a norm in introductory programming courses. Many solutions have been proposed to improve the high failure rates. Surprisingly, these solutions have not lead to significant improvements in the performance of students in introductory programming courses. In this study, the relationship between self-efficacy, emotional engagement and the performance of students in introductory programming courses were examined. Enjoyment, interest, and gratification were identified as three factors contributing to emotional engagement in introductory programming courses from a review of existing literature and from focus groups. An online survey of 433 students in introductory programming courses showed that the students’ programming self-efficacy beliefs had a strong positive effect on enjoyment, while gratification and interest had a negative effect on programming performance. These findings have implications for course instructors who design and deliver introductory programming courses. Geetha Kanaparan Rowena Cullen David Mason Copyright (c) 2019 Geetha Kanaparan, Rowena Cullen, David Mason 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1825 Anticipating, avoiding, and alleviating measurement error: A synthesis of the literature with practical recommendations Researchers’ ability to draw inferences from their empirical work hinges on the degree of measurement error. The literature in Information Systems and other behavioural disciplines describes a plethora of sources of error. While it helps researchers deal with them when taking specific steps in the measurement process, like modelling constructs, developing instruments, collecting data, and analysing data, it does not provide an overall guide to help them prevent and deal with measurement error. This paper presents a synthesis of the insights in the literature through a decomposition of the logic of measurement. It shows how researchers can classify sources of error, evaluate their impact, and refine their measurement plans, in terms of specific steps or overall measurement approaches. We hope this will aid researchers in anticipating, avoiding, and alleviating error in measurement, and in drawing valid research conclusions. Sander Paul Zwanenburg Israr Qureshi Copyright (c) 2019 Sander Paul Zwanenburg, Israr Qureshi 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1844 Designing TRiDS: Treatments for Risks in Design Science Design Science Research (DSR) has many risks. Researchers inexperienced in DSR, especially early career researchers (ECRs) and research students (e.g. PhD students) risk inefficient projects (with delays, rework, etc.) at best and research project failure at worst if they do not manage and treat DSR risks in a proactive manner. The DSR literature, such as the Risk Management Framework for Design Science Research (RMF4DSR), provides advice for identifying risks, but provides few suggestions for specific treatments for the kinds of risks that potentially plague DSR. This paper describes the development of a new purposeful artefact (TRiDS: Treatments for Risks in Design Science) to address this lack of suggestions for treatment of DSR risks. The paper describes how the purposeful artefact was developed (following a DSR methodology), what literature it draws upon to inspire its various components, the functional requirements identified for TRiDS, and how TRiDS is structured and why. The paper also documents the TRiDS purposeful artefact in detail, including four main components: (1) an extended set of risk checklists (extended from RMF4DSR), (2) a set of 47 specific suggestions for treating known risks in DSR, (3) a classification of the treatments identified into 14 different categories, and (4) a look-up table for identifying candidate treatments based on a risk in the extended risk checklists. The treatment suggestions and guidance in TRiDS serve as a supplement to RMF4DSR by helping DSR researchers to identify treatments appropriate for a particular DSR project (or program) and thereby to improve DSR project efficiency and the probability of DSR project success. John R Venable Jan vom Brocke Robert Winter Copyright (c) 2019 John R Venable, Jan vom Brocke, Robert Winter 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1847 Writing, Arguing, Contributing - A Cogent Argumentation Framework for Identifying, Specifying, and Evaluating Research Contribution The predominant means by which research becomes visible and accessible to the research community is through publication. Generally, publication requires careful framing of the research in relation to existing knowledge. As a contribution to knowledge cannot be self-evident, authors must persuade, through argumentation, the editors, reviewers, and the research community that their work offers a contribution. In Information Systems, the discussion of argumentation is often limited to the logic dimensions of argumentation, namely deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning. In this paper, we demonstrate that argumentation requires the consideration of three additional dimensions of argumentation: rhetoric, dialectic, and social-institutional. Kuhn’s concept of the disciplinary matrix is introduced as the background toward which a cogent argument is directed and against which contribution is evaluated. We then illustrate the role of argumentation through the example of the seminal paper by Orlikowski and Iacono on the role of IT in Information Systems research. Understanding the importance of argumentation in framing one’s research contribution is critical to authors, editors, and reviewers alike within and beyond Information Systems and its reference disciplines. Sebastian K. Boell Dirk S. Hovorka Copyright (c) 2019 Sebastian Boell, Dirk S. Hovorka 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1857 Toward a conceptual framework for social media adoption by non-urban communities for non-profit activities: Insights from an integration of grand theories of technology acceptance This paper describes perceptions of social media as a communication tool and source of information for non-profit activities in non-urban communities. It proposes a conceptual framework predicated on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and the information systems success model as theoretical lenses and suggests that four key factors influence the intentions of non-urban communities to adopt and use social media for communication and information of non-profit activities: performance expectancy (i.e. perception of the benefits of using non-profits’ social media to enhance performance), effort expectancy (i.e. perception of how easy it will be to use non-profits’ social media), social conditions (i.e. expectation of others in non-urban communities to use non-profits’ social media), and facilitating conditions (i.e. access to resources and technology as well as self-efficacy with respect to use of non-profits’ social media). It also suggests that three key enablers allow non-profits to leverage those key factors: information quality (i.e. quality of information about non-profit activities), system quality (i.e. quality of social media interface and technology used by non-profits), and service quality (i.e. quality of interactions between representatives of non-profits and non-urban communities on social media). Further empirical testing to validate the conceptual framework, using a non-urban community sample, and strategic investments in key enablers and determinants of high impact and significance should help non-profits to develop effective social media strategies to widen their reach to and in non-urban communities. Weng Marc Lim Ai Ling Lim Cynthia Su Chen Phang Copyright (c) 2019 Weng Marc Lim, Edith Ai Ling Lim, Cynthia Su Chen Phang 2019-05-13 2019-05-13 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1835 Blockchain in healthcare Blockchain is treated as a ledger system that manages data and their transactions using time-stamped blocks through cryptography and works in a decentralised manner over the computing network. Although blockchain is originally used as a backbone for the cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, its capabilities and applications have yet to be extended far beyond cryptocurrencies. In this paper, through conducting a latest systematic literature review aiming to produce new source of evidence, we identify potential applications of the blockchain technologies in healthcare. The comprehensive review looks at the professional and academic open-sourced journals published between 2008 to 2019 to recognise the potential of blockchain based approaches in the purpose of healthcare information disseminations, as well as to segregate issues for the implementation and development of blockchain applications. We identify several major application domains that present research opportunities and challenges for the future advancements and directions for the benefits of IS researchers and professionals. Maria Prokofieva Shah J Miah Copyright (c) 2019 Shah J Miah, Maria Prokofieva 2019-07-15 2019-07-15 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2203 Polynomial Regression and Response Surface Methodology: Theoretical Non-Linearity, Tutorial and Applications for Information Systems Research Information systems (IS) studies regularly assume linearity of the variables and often disregard the potential non-linear theoretical interrelationships among the variables. The application of polynomial regression and response surface methodology can observe such non-linear theoretical assumptions among variables. This methodology enables to examine the extent to which two predictor variables relate to an outcome variable simultaneously. This paper utilizes the expectation confirmation theory as an example and provides a methodological commentary that illustrates a step-wise process for conducting a polynomial regression and response surface methodology. Darshana Sedera Maura Atapattu Copyright (c) 2019 Darshana Sedera, Maura Atapattu 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.1966 A Post Publication Review of "Emerging Insights of Health Informatics Research: A Literature Analysis for Outlining New Themes" <div>A short post publication review of a recent AJIS paper.</div> Adam Poulsen Anwaar Ulhaq Shah Miah Copyright (c) 2019 Adam Poulsen, Anwaar Ulhaq, Shah Miah 2019-06-17 2019-06-17 23 10.3127/ajis.v23i0.2269