Australasian Journal of Information Systems https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis <p>The <cite>Australasian Journal of Information Systems</cite> (AJIS) is an international quality, peer reviewed journal covering innovative research and practice in Information Systems.</p> Australasian Association for Information Systems en-US Australasian Journal of Information Systems 1449-8618 <p>AJIS publishes open-access articles distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Non-Commercial and Attribution License&nbsp;which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and AJIS are credited. All other rights including granting permissions beyond those in the above license remain the property of the author(s).</p> The Impact of Service Delivery System Process and Moderating Effect of Perceived Value in Internet Banking Adoption https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/1923 <p>This study identifies the impact of Internet banking service delivery system (IBSDS) process on consumer behaviour; the mediating effect of customer satisfaction on the relationship between IBSDS process and behavioural intention; and the moderating effect of the customer’s perceived value. The study uses a quantitative method using the data collected from 416 respondents. Mediated regression is used to examine the mediating effect of customer satisfaction. SPSS Process v2.16.3 is employed to analyse the moderating effect of the perceived value. The results indicate that IBSDS process impacts customer satisfaction and behavioural intention. Further, customer satisfaction plays a partial mediating role between the association of IBSDS process and behavioural intention. This study provides evidence that the technological capabilities embedded in the bank website processes are an important factor in determining customer satisfaction and ultimately behavioural intention. The study also reveals that perceived value moderates the relationship between IBSDS process and customer satisfaction, and between customer satisfaction, and, behavioural intention. It also adds to the existing knowledge on the adoption of Internet banking literature. Academicians and information systems researchers may use these findings for further research. Financial service providers or related agencies may consider the attributes of the IBSDS process (e.g., navigation, searching, transacting, etc.) while designing their Internet banking services to provide enhanced customer experiences. The paper also highlights the research limitations and scope for future research.</p> Rajiv Kumar Amit Sachan Ritu Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Rajiv Kumar, Amit Sachan, Ritu Kumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-01-06 2020-01-06 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.1923 Telemedicine Healthcare Service Adoption Barriers in Rural Bangladesh https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2165 <p class="JnlBody">This article investigates potential barriers to telemedicine adoption in centres hosted by rural public hospitals in Bangladesh. Little is known of the barriers related to telemedicine adoption in this context. Analysis of data collected from rural telemedicine patients identified seven broad categories of barriers: lack of organisational effectiveness, information and communication technology infrastructure, quality of care, allocation of resources, health staff motivation, patient satisfaction and trustworthiness. Their significance is explored. This research is based on the quantitative analysis of a data set of 500 telemedicine patients, from rural areas in Bangladesh. A conceptual model showing the interaction of pre-determined classes of barriers was established and hypotheses set up and tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling. Exemplary barriers to telemedicine adoption were identified and confirmed (p&lt;.01) namely, lack of organisational effectiveness, health staff motivation, patient satisfaction, and trustworthiness collectively explaining 62% of the variance in barriers to adoption and providing for the first-time empirical support of their existence. These barriers offer considerable resistance to the adoption and maintenance of current telemedicine projects in rural Bangladesh. Further, lack of information and communication technology infrastructure, allocation of resources and quality of care are indirect barriers affecting successful deployment of telemedicine in rural settings. These findings illuminate adoption impediments faced by existing telemedicine projects and institutionalise favourable policy guidelines to improve Bangladesh’s and similar emerging economies’ healthcare industries. Policy interventions and recommendations are provided, including current research limitations leading to opportunities for future research.</p> Khondker Mohammad Zobair Louis Sanzogni Kuldeep Sandhu Copyright (c) 2020 Khondker Mohammad Zobair, Louis Sanjzogni, Kuldeep Sandhu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2165 Meta-design knowledge for Clinical Decision Support Systems https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2049 <p class="JnlBody">Knowledge gained from a Decision Support Systems (DSS) design should ideally be reusable by DSS designers and researchers. The majority of existing DSS research has mainly focused on empirical problem solving rather than on developing principles that could inform solution approaches for other user contexts. Design Science Research (DSR) has contributed to effective development of various innovative DSS artefacts and associated knowledge development, but there has been limited progress on new knowledge development from a practical problem context, going beyond product and process descriptions. For DSS applications such as Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) design and development, relevant reusable prescriptive knowledge is of significance not only to understand mutability but also to extend application of theory across domains. In this paper, we develop new design knowledge abstracted from the approach taken in a representative case of innovative CDSS development, specified as an architecture and six design principles. The CDSS design artefact was initially designed for a specific clinical need is shown to be flexible for meeting demands of knowledge production both for diagnosis and treatment. It is argued that the proposed general strategy is applicable to designing CDSS artefacts in similar problem domains representing an important contribution of design knowledge both in DSS and DSR fields.</p> Shah J Miah Jacqueline Blake Don Kerr Copyright (c) 2020 Shah J Miah, Jacqui Blake, Don Kerr, John Gammack https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-04-06 2020-04-06 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2049 The Impact of Ambivalent Perception of Bureaucratic Structure on Cyberloafing https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2087 <p class="JnlBody">Cyberloafing, defined as the use of the Internet for personal use at the workplace, is emerging as a serious concern for organizations as it disrupts the attainment of organizational objectives. A systematic literature review, conducted as a part of this research, of antecedents of cyberloafing behaviour show that research exploring the relationship between the perception of organizational structure and cyberloafing is at a nascent stage. Acknowledging the underexplored state of research in this area, we investigated this relationship through a quantitative study using a sample of 201 employees, and the containment theory as the base. Our study results indicate that an ambivalent perception of the bureaucratic structure has a differential impact on the cyberloafing activities through serial mediation of two important attitudes, namely organizational identification and work engagement. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.</p> Prakriti Soral Jithesh Arayankalam Jatin Pandey Copyright (c) 2020 Prakriti Soral, A Jithesh, Jatin Pandey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2087 Computing, Girls and Education: What we need to know to change how girls think about information technology. https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/1783 <p>Despite significant efforts and many intervention programs over the years to encourage girls to study computing, we continue to see a declining interest. Girls’ lack of engagement with technology at school is resulting in fewer women entering the Information Technology (IT) workforce. Our research investigated whether a long-term intervention program with a specifically designed school-based curriculum could change girls’ minds about computing generally and increase their confidence and interest in an IT career. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from girls and teachers before, during, and after this program was implemented. A conceptual model of the school-based influences on girls’ attitude was developed from the literature and used to explore the data. Findings from this four-year project added rich insights and resulted in a comprehensive model of ‘Factors that Influence Girls’ Attitude to IT.’&nbsp; This research demonstrates that a carefully designed IT curriculum, delivered in single-sex classes, reinforced by opportunities to interact with role models, and timetabled in regular class time, can and does change girls’ attitudes to IT. We also found that the students reported improved confidence and increased interest in IT. We posit that our refined model of ‘Factors that Influence Girls’ Attitude to IT’ is a valuable reference tool. Teachers, academics and professionals who are implementing programs to promote IT to girls can use it.</p> Catherine Lang Julie Fisher Annemieke Craig Helen Forgasz Copyright (c) 2020 Catherine Lang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-04-15 2020-04-15 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.1783 Digital Coupon Redemption: Conceptualization, Scale Development and Validation https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2469 <p class="JnlBody">The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale for measuring digital coupon redemption. The scale development process began with the grounded theory approach for item generation. This was followed by the development of a conceptual framework, item generation, initial reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on primary data collected from 609 participants. For validating the scale, the CFA was repeated using data from 411 unique participants. Results from two independent surveys supported the proposed scale in terms of construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Survey study resulted in a 45-item digital coupon redemption scale. It also covers digital aspects such as intention to search, attitude toward internet searching, perceived risk, perceived convenience and personal innovativeness which were not covered in earlier promotion scales. This scale would assist marketers to maximize digital coupon redemption during their promotion campaigns. This is the first attempt to provide a comprehensive scale to measure digital coupon redemption in the marketing literature.</p> Preeti Nayal Neeraj Pandey Copyright (c) 2020 Preeti Nayal, Neeraj Pandey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2469 Helping Yourself or Others? Motivation Dynamics for High-Performing Volunteers in GLAM Crowdsourcing https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2599 <p>While most crowdsourcing (CS) cases in the literature focus on commercial organisations, little is known about volunteers’ motivation of initial and continued participation in not-for-profit CS projects and importantly, about how the motivations may change over time. It is vital to understand motivation and motivational dynamics in a not-for-profit context because a fundamental challenge for not-for-profit CS initiations is to recruit and keep volunteers motivated without any formal contract or financial incentives. To tackle this challenge, we explore high performing volunteers’ initial motivation for joining and sustaining with a GLAM (galleries, libraries, archives and museums) CS project. We situated our interpretive exploration in a case study of the Australian Newspapers CS project initiated by the National Library of Australia. Based on the case study, we found that high-performing volunteers were motivated by a combination of personal, collective, and external factors classified into intrinsic, extrinsic, and internalised extrinsic motivations. Further, we found that these motivations changed over time. Specifically, many volunteers presented substantial personal (i.e., personal interest and fun) and community-centric motivations (i.e. altruism and non-profit cause) when they initially joined the project, whereas external motivations (i.e., recognition and rewards) had a greater impact on long-term participation. Our findings offer implications for CS system design (e.g., user profiles, tagging and commenting), incentive structure (e.g., reputation-based ranking, leader boards), and relational mechanisms (e.g., open communication channels) to stimulate sustainable contributions for not-for-profit CS initiatives.</p> Sultana Lubna Alam Ruonan Sun John Campbell Copyright (c) 2020 Sultana Lubna Alam, Ruonan Sun, John Campbell https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2599 Research Directions in Information Systems Field, Current Status and Future Trends https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2045 <p class="JnlBody">Information systems, as an emerging discipline which is dynamic and interdisciplinary, is constantly undergoing rapid changes; therefore, one of the most critical issues is to study the topics and methodological trends in this field. This study aimed to thoroughly investigate the topics and methodologies used in information system throughout a twelve-year period (2007-2018). In the present study, all the articles published in the top eight information system journals were investigated based on their topics and methodologies using a literature analysis approach, and the most common topics and methodologies in such studies were then detected. The main topics addressed in this field were electronic commerce/business, information system research, and IS usage/adoption, and the survey was the dominant research methodology in this regard. Furthermore, an increase in the use of the mathematical models indicates that more accurate quantitative research methods have made this field more mature. The research findings also show that the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, social media, bitcoin and block chain, digital transformation, sharing economy, digital platform, methodology of machine learning, data mining, and text mining are the main research topics and methods which should be further studied.</p> Elham Mazaheri Mohammad Lagzian Zahra Hemmat Copyright (c) 2020 Elham Mazaheri, mohammad lagzian, zahra hemmat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-25 2020-05-25 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2045 Applying a Systematic Literature Review and Content Analysis Method to Analyse Open Source Developers’ Forking Motivation Interpretation, Categories and Consequences https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/1714 <p class="JnlBody">In open source (OS) environments, forking is a powerful social collaborative technique that creates a social coding community and increases code visibility but it has not been adopted by OS software (OSS) developers. This paper investigates OS forking divergence using contextual frameworks (systematic literature review and content analysis) to analyse OSS developer forking motivation, interpretation, categorisation and consequences. We identified five theoretical forking patterns: 1) forking can revive original project health; 2) few effective frameworks exist to describe project-to-project developer migration; 3) there is a literature on social forking community behaviour; 4) poor guidance is a threat to forking; and 5) most research uses mixed methods. We introduce guidelines for OSS communities to reduce organisational barriers to developer motivation and highlight the important of understanding developer forking. The challenge remains to analyse forking and sustainability from a social community perspective, particularly how programming language, file repositories and developer interest can predict forking motivation and behaviour for both novice OSS developers or experienced developers who want to improve forking performance.</p> Bee Bee Chua Ying Zhang Copyright (c) 2020 Bee Chua https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.1714 Investigating Information System Testing Gamification with Time Restrictions on Testers’ Performance https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2179 <p>This paper presents the results obtained from the evaluation of gamified software testing platform that was developed following series of focus group discussions comprising of software developers and testers. The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of gamification as an additive method that can help improve the performance of software testers. Additionally in this study, new metrics have been introduced to quantify the performance of software testers fairly and more accurately. Moreover, the effect of time restriction impacting on the performance of software testers will be discussed from results of this study. Findings suggest that the proposed metrics, which more accurately capture the difficulty level of the software code defects, are able to better analyse and compare the performances of software testers in the gamified testing environment. Moreover, results indicated that time restriction may compromise the performance of software testers and the quality of written software test code. On the other hand, results suggest that the performance of software testers in detecting low priority bugs in the gamified software-testing platform was better compared to the other more difficult to detect bugs.</p> Navid Memar Aneesh Krishna David McMeekin Tele Tan Copyright (c) 2020 Navid Memar, Aneesh Krishna, David McMeekin, Tele Tan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2179 Improving Emergency Department Through Business Process Redesign https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2679 <p>The Emergency Departments (ED) of hospitals are poised for continuous improvement due to increasing demand. The ED are places where the efficiency of the services provided can save lives and therefore it should be seen as an area of maximum interest for process optimisation. This research aims at verifying if the application of Business Process Management (BPM) heuristics positively impacts the length of stay (LoS), without deteriorating the quality of the service provided. The methodology that underlies this research is a case study carried out in the ED of a public hospital. The data was gathered from individual interviews, focus groups, direct observation and document analysis. The BPM life cycle stages were followed. In addition, a simulation tool was used, and heuristics were chosen based on Devil’s Quadrangle theory. Three scenarios of the ED were considered. Additionally, three heuristics and any combination of them were also considered. Results show that heuristics positively impact the time variable without affecting the quality of the service, resulting in value gains for the patient. In terms of time consumption, the average LoS in the process was reduced by 22.5%, 15.9%, and 20.9% for each of the considered scenarios, while the maximum LoS was reduced by 29.2%, 36.2% % and 37.4%. Implications from these results were analysed. The novelty of this research is supported by the absence of studies applying BPM heuristics to ED. This research is a step forward to ally BPM heuristics and ED processes.</p> Ruben Pereira Luís Velez Lapão Isaias Scalabrin Bianchi Daniel Amaral Copyright (c) 2020 Ruben Pereira , Luís Velez Lapão, Isaias Scalabrin Bianchi, Daniel Amaral https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2679 Consumer acceptance and continuance of mobile money https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2579 <p>This research provides empirical results on context-based factors that determine the use of mobile money in Africa by employing a unique secondary data which provides a new perspective on the technology acceptance model (TAM) application. The hypothesised research model tests the context-based constructs to determine how these constructs affect peoples' intentions and attitudes towards the continued use of mobile money. Exploring these constructs provides an understanding of the insights into the marketing campaigns and growth of mobile money providers. The empirical results suggest that the availability of electricity is an important factor for mobile phone functionality and ongoing use of mobile money in the long run. There is also a correlation between regulations that are perceived to be enabling and the intentions of individuals to continue using mobile money. However, there is a negative correlation between rural dwellings and the intentions of individuals to adopt the use of mobile money which finds its basis in the inadequate mobile networks and national grid systems in rural areas.</p> Abidin Alhassan Leon Li Krishna Reddy Geeta Duppati Copyright (c) 2020 Abidin Alhassan, Leon Li, Krishna Reddy, Geeta Duppati https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2579 Dynamics of Digital Diffusion and Disadoption https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/1805 <p>The digital divide between Indigenous and other Australians describes the unequal access to information and communications technology (ICT) between these groups. Historically, researchers have focused on acquiring new technology, but we argue that it is important to understand all the dynamics of digital usage, including the loss of access to ICT within a household. For long-lived technology such as internet access, it is particularly important to consider that retention of access to the technology. This paper conducts a longitudinal analysis of changes in internet usage for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian households using the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, 2006–2016. While earlier work analyses the digital divide in terms of ‘diffusion’ or adoption of ICT, this paper shows that the failure to retain internet access is also important in driving the digital divide. The dynamics of the digital divide have important and ongoing implications for addressing broader socioeconomic disadvantages experienced by Indigenous Australians. The COVID-19 pandemic underscores the urgency of policy addressing the digital divide, given the renewed momentum for remote learning and telecommuting.</p> Boyd H Hunter Peter J Radoll Copyright (c) 2020 Boyd H Hunter, Peter J Radoll https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.1805 A Hyperconnected Smart City Framework https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2531 <p>Recent technological advancements have given rise to the concept of hyper-connected smart cities being adopted around the world. These cities aspire to achieve better outcomes for citizens by improving the quality of service delivery, information sharing, and creating a sustainable environment. A smart city comprises of a network of interconnected devices also known as IoT (Internet of Things), which captures data and transmits it to a platform for analysis. This data covers a variety of information produced in large volumes also known as Big Data. From data capture to processing and storage, there are several stages where a breach in security and privacy could result in catastrophic impacts. Presently there is a gap in the centralization of knowledge to implement smart city services with a secure architecture. To bridge this gap, we present a framework that highlights challenges within the smart city applications and synthesizes the techniques feasible to solve them. Additionally, we analyze the impact of a potential breach on smart city applications and state-of-the-art architectures available. Furthermore, we identify the stakeholders who may have an interest in learning about the relationships between the significant aspects of a smart city. We demonstrate these relationships through force-directed network diagrams. They will help raise the awareness amongst the stakeholders for planning the development of a smart city. To complement our framework, we designed web-based interactive resources that are available from http://ausdigitech.com/smartcity/.</p> Naureen Naqvi Sabih ur Rehman Zahidul Islam Copyright (c) 2020 Naureen Naqvi, Sabih ur Rehman, Zahidul Islam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-08-25 2020-08-25 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2531 Implementing Data Strategy https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2541 <p>With the arrival of Big Data, organizations have started building data-enabled customer value propositions to increase monetizing and cost-saving opportunities. Organizations have to implement a set of guidelines, procedures, and processes to manage, process and transform data that could be leveraged for value creation. This study has approached the journey of an organization towards data-enabled value creation through four levels of data processing, such as data extraction, data transformation, value creation, and value delivery. This study has critical inferences on using data management solutions such as RDBMS, NoSQL, NewSQL, Big Data and real-time reporting tools to support transactional data in internal systems, and other types of data in external systems such as Social Media. The outcome of this study is a methodological technology independent data management framework an organization could use when building a strategy around data. This study provides guidelines for defining an enterprise-wide data management solution, helping both the academicians and practitioners.</p> Radhakrishnan Balakrishnan Satyasiba Das Manojit Chattopadhyay Copyright (c) 2020 Radhakrishnan Balakrishnan, Satyasiba Das, Manojit Chattopadhyay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-09-03 2020-09-03 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2541 The Role of Contextualization in Individuals’ Vulnerability to Phishing Attempts https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2693 <p>Hackers who engage in phishing manipulate their victims into revealing confidential information by exploiting their motives, habits, and cognitive biases. Drawing on heuristic-systematic processing and the anchoring effect, this study examines how the contextualization of phishing messages, in the form of modifications to their framing and content, affects individuals’ susceptibility to phishing. This study also investigates if there is a discrepancy between the way individuals believe they will react to phishing attempts and their actual reactions. Using two fake phishing campaigns and an online survey, we find that individuals are more susceptible to phishing attempts when the phishing messages they receive are specific to their context, thereby appealing to their psychological vulnerabilities. There is also a significant gap between how individuals believe they will react and their actual reactions to phishing attempts.</p> Farkhondeh Hassandoust Harminder Singh Jocelyn Williams Copyright (c) 2020 Farkhondeh Hassandoust, Harminder Singh, Jocelyn Williams https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2693 Preface: Towards the Next Generation of Information Systems: Enhancing Traceability and Transparency https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2823 <p class="JnlBody">The information systems community plays a significant role in providing theories for guiding the creation of more effective information systems. This is nowadays most prominent in supporting the ongoing evolution of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and decision-making systems. As these systems are becoming increasingly reliable, and supplanting the presence of humans, the question of accountability and trust in these systems is increasingly coming to the fore. This editorial positions and showcases a collection of papers from the 2018 <em>Australasian Conference on Information Systems</em> within this context.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Khin Than Win Ghassan Beydoun Copyright (c) 2020 Khin Than Win, Ghassan Beydoun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2823 Consumer Trust in Food Safety Requires Information Transparency https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2219 This paper proposes a conceptual model to understand how information transparency matters can support consumer trust in food safety. Beside food labels, food product information can be disseminated by the support of technologies including traceability systems and social media. This article studies extant literature to provide a knowledge base for the development of a conceptual model. Information provided by traceability systems is deemed to increase a consumer’s knowledge of a food product. Furthermore, social media is considered as a well-informed source that provides some useful information to consumers. Therefore, we argue that technology-supported information supports and enhances the information consumers need to make their own judgement about the safety of a food product. Three testable propositions are developed from a conceptual model that provides insights into food information that consumers find helpful for developing trust in food safety. Tri Khai Lam Jon Heales Nicole Hartley Chris Hodkinson Copyright (c) 2019 Tri Khai Lam, Jon Heales, Nicole Hartley, Chris Hodkinson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2219 Identification of Enterprise Social Network (ESN) Group Archetypes in ESN Analytics https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2355 <p class="JnlBody">With the proliferation of Enterprise Social Networks (ESN), the measurement of ESN activity becomes increasingly relevant. The emerging field of ESN analytics aims to develop metrics and models to measure and classify user activity to support organisational goals and outcomes. In this paper we focus on a neglected area of ESN analytics, the classification of activity in ESN groups. We engage in explorative research to identify a set of metrics that divides an ESN group sample into distinct types. We collaborate with Sydney-based service provider SWOOP Analytics who provided access to actual ESN meta data describing activity in 350 groups across three organisations. By employing clustering techniques, we derive a set of four group types: broadcast streams, information forums, communities of practice and project teams. We collect and reflect on feedback from ESN champions in fourteen organisations. For ESN analytics research we contribute a set of metrics and group types. For practice we envision a method that enables group managers to compare aspirations for their groups to embody a certain group type, with actual activity patterns.</p> Kai Riemer Laurence Lock Lee Cai Kjaer Annika Haeffner Copyright (c) 2020 Kai Riemer, Laurence Lock Lee, Cai Kjaer, Annika Haeffner https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2355 Applying Complex Adaptive Systems Theory to Understand Distributed Participatory Design in Crowdsourced Information Systems Development https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2225 <p class="JnlBody">Contemporary information systems development (ISD) takes place in a dynamic environment; it is generally acknowledged as a complex activity. It has been proposed that ISD projects should be viewed as a complex adaptive system (CAS) and that these projects are better understood through the application of CAS. Distributed participatory design (DPD) is an approach to contemporary ISD where different, geographically dispersed stakeholders, often called the crowd, participate voluntarily and typically unaffiliated with the development organisation in the development and design of information systems in distributed design teams which are mostly online on Internet, web-based, and social media platforms. Going beyond individual methods, techniques, and practices, the objective of this research is twofold as we answer the two research questions: how are DPD projects in crowdsourced ISD managed and performed in their entirety and how does CAS theory provide plausible explanations and contribute to an understanding of contemporary ISD? For this purpose, we present a case of DPD in crowdsourced ISD in an intergovernmental, not-for-profit environment in the context of a DPD project which engaged Pacific Youth in the development of a digital game where we applied CAS theory to better understand and gain insights for ISD theory and practice.</p> Karlheinz Kautz Gro Bjerknes Julie Fisher Tomas Jensen Copyright (c) 2020 Karlheinz Kautz, Gro Bjerknes, Julie Fisher, Tomas Jensen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2225 Collaborative Modelling and Visualization of Business Ecosystems https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2229 <p class="JnlBody">Business ecosystems are increasingly gaining relevance in research and practice. Because ecosystems progressively change, enterprises are required to analyse their ecosystem, in order to identify and respond to such changes. For gaining a comprehensive picture of the ecosystem, various enterprise stakeholders need to be involved in the analysis process. We use an Action Design Research approach to implement a collaborative process for modelling and visualizing business ecosystems in two case studies. We look at the challenges of the collaborative process and study how a model-driven approach addresses these challenges. We validate and discuss the modelling process along six steps; definition of the business ecosystem focus, model instantiation, data collection, provision of tailored visualizations, model adaption, and using visualizations ‘to tell a story’. In a cross-case analysis, we draw conclusions with respect to process implementation and the role of visualizations.</p> Anne Faber Adrian Hernandez-Mendez Sven-Volker Rehm Florian Matthes Copyright (c) 2020 Anne Faber, Adrian Hernandez-Mendez, Sven-Volker Rehm, Florian Matthes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2229 Preface Ethics in the Cyber Age and exploring emerging themes and relationships between ethics, governance and emerging technologies https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2889 <p>Preface to the special section of selected papers from the 8th Australasian Institute of Computer Ethics (AiCE) conference, held in Melbourne, 19-20th August, 2019.</p> Matt Warren Kirsten Wahlstrom Marcus Wigan Oliver Kisalay Burmeister Copyright (c) 2020 Matt Warren, Kirsten Wahlstrom, Marcus Wigan, Oliver Kisalay Burmeister https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2889 Rethinking IT Professional Ethics https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2851 <p>Professional computer ethics has widened its scope over the last 20 years as a direct result of the massive growth in computer mediated services by government and industry, and concerns over how data and interaction processes are recorded. These shifts are explored in conjunction with the parallel decline in community trust of government. The growing importance of a broader view and action framework for professional computer societies is delineated.</p> Marc Wigan Copyright (c) 2020 Marc Wigan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2851 Towards an Ontology and Ethics of Virtual Influencers https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2807 <p>In 2018, TIME magazine named Miquela Souza one of the 25 most influential people on the internet, despite the fact she is not a person at all. Miquela is the first digitally created virtual influencer. This paper provides an initial analysis of some of the ontological and ethical issues associated with the rise of virtual influencers on social media platforms like Instagram. Through a focus on Miquela, it is argued that while these fabricated identities may cause uneasiness at first, there is nothing morally significant that distinguishes them from natural, ‘real life’ influencers. But, far from ‘business as usual’, the inability to separate ‘virtual’ and ‘real life’ influencers raises important questions about the ethical construction of identity, and how this may affect the ongoing preservation of social values like trust in online spaces. The paper draws on literature in personal identity and agency theory to establish the ontological claim that there is no meaningful difference between Miquela and other ‘real life’ influencers, which leads to the discussion about ethical issues including moral responsibility and motivation, and transparency. As of May 2020, this appears to be the first peer-reviewed article theorising about virtual influencers. There are significant opportunities for further research, both in terms of how we should conceptualise these identities, as well as more empirically based social research into how to preserve social values like trust in online spaces.</p> Ben Robinson Copyright (c) 2020 Ben Robinson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2807 Fake News Case Study during the Australian 2019 General Election https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2803 <p>Social media is used by all aspects of society from citizens to businesses, but it also now used by political parties. Political parties use social media to engage with voters as a method of attract new voters or reinforcing the views of political parties’ current supporters. An important consideration is the ethical conduct of political parties and politicians in how they use social media. It is now recognized that social media can also have negative aspects seen by the introduction of Fake News. These negative aspects of social media are often overlooked and have not been explored from a research perspective. This paper looks at the Australian 2019 General Election and discusses a major Fake News example that occurred during that election. The paper will also describe the different types of social media data was collected during the study and also present the analysis of the data collected as well discussing the research findings including the ethical issues.</p> Matthew Warren Copyright (c) 2020 Matthew Warren https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2803 Privacy by design https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2801 <p>Privacy is important because it supports freedom, dignity, autonomy, justice, and democracy, and therefore it is important that privacy is studied in ontologically robust ways. A form of privacy is implemented in the right to be forgotten, which is a human right established by the European Court of Justice. Blockchain and Holochain are examples of recently emerged technologies that were shaped by, and are now shaping of, social contexts in which economic transactions may occur. The right to be forgotten represents a compliance challenge for public and private implementations of blockchain technology. This paper describes a few of these challenges.</p> Kirsten Wahlstrom Anwaar Ul-haq Oliver Burmeister Copyright (c) 2020 Kirsten Wahlstrom, Anwaar Ul-haq, Oliver Burmeister https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2801 The Three Harms of Gendered Technology https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2799 <p>Marginalised groups experience both immediate and long-term detriment as a result of innovations in information systems. This paper explores three facets of technologically related gendered harm: physical, institutional, and psychological. These harms will be demonstrated by case studies. Firstly, technology can cause physical harm by denying women their bodily autonomy, demonstrated by the public availability of AI software that generates nude pictures of women, and smart home devices used in instances of domestic abuse. Secondly, technology can deny women institutional access, as increasingly widespread algorithms are shown to underperform on marginalised groups. Thirdly, anthropomorphised technology reflects and entrenches harmful stereotypes of women’s submissiveness, causing psychological harm. Reducing harm must go beyond ensuring a diversity of representation in STEM fields. We conclude that effective regulation should focus on the design features in technological innovations.</p> Lena Wang Copyright (c) 2020 Lena Wang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2799 The Shared Responsibility Model https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2797 <p>This exploratory paper provides social context for platform corporations and examples of ethical transgressions by them and then canvasses the role of various organizational actors in controlling the ethical behaviour of ‘platforms', which may be seen to be more than usually problematic in this regard. From this survey, the conclusion is drawn that there may be no single actor that offers sufficient leverage to change organizational ethical behaviour. The paper then suggests the Shared Responsibility Model as a possible conceptual framework for a better understanding of the issue of ethical control and recommends practical interventions that may assist in realizing ethical behaviour by platforms that more closely aligns with societal expectations. The paper offers a caution about the side-effects of interventions to improve ethical behaviour, before concluding by pointing out implications of these findings for state-actor regulators and avenues for future research.</p> Michael Wildenauer Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Wildenauer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2797 Review: Responsible use of technology to combat Cyberbullying among adolescents https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2791 <p>Cyberbullying has become a major challenge for authorities, parents, guardians and schools in particular, especially in the era of the digital world. This paper reviews available empirical research to examine the issues such as the responsible use of technology amongst young people, parents and schools responsibility to protect against Cyberbullying. The analysis revealed that the responsible use of technology provides better practices to encourage comparisons because of these new digital technologies. Parents and educators are the key to Cyber ethics, therefore teaching the responsible use of technology whilst focusing on Cyber ethics at the start of young people’s exposure to technology use may be an excellent strategy to reduce the growth and impact of Cyberbullying. The paper will also review good practices for young people, school communities and parents to prevent and manage Cyberbullying and unethical behaviours online. These claims are examined using current literature to ensure a better understanding of responsible use of technology and understanding of Cyberbullying in order to support young people to combat this immerging societal challenge.</p> Chintha Kaluarachchi Matthew Warren Frank Jiang Copyright (c) 2020 Chintha Kaluarachchi, Matthew Warren , Frank Jiang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2791 Towards Using Value Tensions to Reframe the Value of Data Beyond Market-based Online Social Norms https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2793 <p>Making sense of data, its value and impact is imperative for individuals, organisations and societies to function in the cyber age. The online interactions through which data flows present many benefits. However, the consumption of data and its value is problematic due to an overreliance on market norms as a substitute for values-based online social norms and practices, creating value tensions. Understanding the implications of data is further complicated due to the complex contextual nature of online interactions. These challenges are addressed through efforts from technology organisations and policy initiatives. Largely absent from these efforts is an understanding of the values needed to ground healthy online social interactions, and processes that nurture and afford the practice of these values in contextual community settings. Value tensions as an ethics tool can surface and clarify these interpersonal needs in understanding data and its impact. Communities may be appropriately placed to grapple with these value tensions given the contextual nature of interactions. This discussion paper presents a preliminary research agenda raising questions on uncovering value tensions and understanding the values at stake to transform data practices and develop healthy online social norms, to reframe the value of data beyond market-based online social norms.</p> Anisha Fernando Lesa Scholl Copyright (c) 2020 Anisha Fernando, Lesa Scholl https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2793 Cybersecurity, value sensing robots for LGBTIQ+ elderly, and the need for revised codes of conduct https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2789 <p>Until now, each profession has developed their professional codes of conduct independently. However, the use of robots and artificial intelligence is blurring professional delineations: aged care nurses work with lifting robots, tablet computers, and intelligent diagnostic systems, and health information system designers work with clinical teams. While robots assist the medical staff in extending the professional service they provide, it is not clear how professions adhere and adapt to the new reality. In this article, we reflect on how the insertion of robots may shape codes of conduct, in particular with regards to cybersecurity. We do so by focusing on the use of social robots for helping LGBTIQ+ elderly cope with loneliness and depression. Using robots in such a delicate domain of application changes how care is delivered, as now alongside the caregiver, there is a cyber-physical health information system that can learn from experience and act autonomously. Our contribution stresses the importance of including cybersecurity considerations in codes of conduct for both robot developers and caregivers as it is the human and not the machine which is responsible for ensuring the system’s security and the user’s safety.</p> Adam Poulsen Eduard Fosch-Villaronga Oliver K Burmeister Copyright (c) 2020 Adam Poulsen, Eduard Fosch-Villaronga, Oliver K Burmeister https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2789 Preface to the Special Section on the 10th Information Systems Foundations Workshop https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2731 <p>Introduction to the Special Section.</p> Sigi Goode Copyright (c) 2020 Sigi Goode https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2731 Explanations as Discourse https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2519 <p class="JnlBody">Big data analytics uses algorithms for decision-making and targeting of customers. These algorithms process large-scale data sets and create efficiencies in the decision-making process for organizations but are often incomprehensible to customers and inherently opaque in nature. Recent European Union regulations require that organizations communicate meaningful information to customers on the use of algorithms and the reasons behind decisions made about them. In this paper, we explore the use of explanations in big data analytics services. We rely on discourse ethics to argue that explanations can facilitate a balanced communication between organizations and customers, leading to transparency and trust for customers as well as customer engagement and reduced reputation risks for organizations. We conclude the paper by proposing future empirical research directions.</p> Sadaf Afrashteh Ida Someh Michael Davern Copyright (c) 2020 Sadaf Afrashteh, Ida Someh, Michael Davern https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2519 The Challenges Involved in Establishing a Research Technique https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2515 <p>Many research techniques are well-accepted within the Information Systems (IS) discipline.&nbsp; From time to time, however, a researcher investigates a question that requires a novel approach.&nbsp; It is then incumbent on the researcher to justify that approach. The IS discipline has accumulated a large corpus of published works.&nbsp; A project is being undertaken whose purpose is to establish the conceptual foundations for a research technique for the critical analysis of published works, and to develop methodological guidance for its application. This article discusses the challenges that have confronted that undertaking.</p> Roger Clarke Copyright (c) 2020 Roger Clarke https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2515 Making IS Relevant in a Connected World https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2509 <p class="JnlBody">The exponential growth of the Internet since the mid-1990s has greatly expanded the capacity of people everywhere to interconnect and engage through digital technologies. As a complex adaptive system of systems, the Internet has extended the range and complexity of phenomena of interest to Information Systems (IS) scholars. This is both an exciting opportunity and a challenge which we explore in this paper by revisiting the Intellectual Structures Framework (Hirshheim et al. 1996) which attempted to make sense of the fragmented adhocracy of IS, before the expansion and penetration of the Internet. We suggest that the IS adhocracy, with its multi-disciplinary and systems-oriented nature, gives IS researchers the requisite variety to contend with the increasingly diverse digital ecologies of IS-enabled human activities that have emerged in the ensuing two decades. Based on relevant research over these two decades we present a revised framework that (1) reflects the complexities of contemporary IS phenomena and (2) can act as an instrument for analysing such phenomena across a spectrum of human activities. We justify the form and content of the Revised Intellectual Structures Framework, providing examples of its application in IS research using appropriate research methods and techniques. We argue that our revisions to the original framework provides individuals, organisations, and societies with a conceptual lens that is necessary to better address the challenges and opportunities posed by the complexities of contemporary digital ecologies.</p> Henry Linger Helen Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Henry Linger, Helen Hasan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-03-16 2020-03-16 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2509 Incidental findings on multimodel comparison, hypothesis testing error, and its solution https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2555 <p class="JnlBody">This article sheds light on an incidental discovery of hypothesis testing error and its solution in a study that compared the multimodel effects of information and knowledge on career decisions. Using a sample of 500 second and third year undergraduates who were simple randomly recruited from 10 simple randomly selected universities, the study demonstrates how hypothesis testing error could occur when multimodel comparison of the effects of the same set of independent constructs (information and knowledge) on a different but related set of dependent constructs (career pursuit and rewarding career pursuit) is performed and how that error can be avoided through detailed scrutiny of the psychic distance between the dependent constructs. It is hoped that the insights herein will be useful for scholars to avoid and overcome the pitfall of hypothesis testing error arising from multimodel comparison involving a different but related set of dependent constructs.</p> Weng Marc Lim Symeon Mandrinos Copyright (c) 2020 Weng Marc Lim, Symeon Mandrinos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-04-27 2020-04-27 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2555 Towards developing a Healthcare Situation Monitoring Method for Smart City Initiatives https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2551 <p>Research in Smart City development has been proliferated over the past few years, which focused heavily on various supporting service sectors, such as healthcare. However, little effort has been made to design health surveillance support systems, which is also important for the advancement of public healthcare monitoring as an essential smart city initiatives. From an information system (IS) design perspective, this paper introduces a social media-based health surveillance supporting method, which can automatically extricates relevant online posts for health symptom management and prediction. We describe and demonstrate an IS design approach in this paper for hay-fever prediction solution concept based on Twitter posts. This concept can be applicable to fully functional solution design by relevant practitioners in this field.</p> Shah J Miah H. Quan Vu Copyright (c) 2020 Shah J Miah, H. Quan Vu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2551 A Post Publication Review of 'The impact of telehealth technology on user perception of wellbeing and social functioning, and the implications for service providers' https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2769 <p>This post publication review discusses the article by Burmeister et al. (2019) in which the authors present a study evaluating the social, economic, and wellbeing impacts of telehealth technology in the homes of community-dwelling older persons, highlighting its contribution and identifying areas for further research. The article centres on one particular project in which telehealth monitoring systems were used in homes in regional New South Wales.</p> Adam Poulsen Copyright (c) 2020 Adam Poulsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-05-04 2020-05-04 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2769 A Post Publication Review of 'Understanding the effects of compromise and misuse of personal details on older people' https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2839 <p>This post publication review discusses the article by Watson, Lacey, Kerr, Salmon, and Goode (2019). That article raises important considerations for older people when they interact online. It is a thorough review of the non-financial considerations related to cyber safety for older people in Australia. The authors raise a few issues to consider for future research, but of course like everyone else in the world, they could not foresee the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Oliver Kisalay Burmeister Copyright (c) 2020 Oliver Kisalay Burmeister https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2839 A post-publication review of "Research directions in information systems field, current status and future trends: A literature analysis of AIS basket of top journals" https://journal.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/2921 <p>This post-publication review highlights the strengths and shortcomings of Mazaheri, Lagzian, and Hemmat (2020) and the key considerations for future systematic reviews in information systems.</p> Weng Marc Lim Copyright (c) 2020 Weng Marc Lim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/au/ 2020-08-17 2020-08-17 24 10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2921