Do Challenge and Hindrance Stressors Effect Cyberloafing Differently? Attentiveness and Anger as Mediators and Trait Mindfulness as a Moderator


  • Sauvik Kumar Batabyal International Management Institute New Delhi
  • Kanika Tandon Bhal Indian Institute of Technology Delhi



Cyberloafing, Challenge and Hindrance Stressors, Trait Mindfulness, Moderated Mediation


The objective of this study is to test the differential effect of challenge and hindrance stressors on cyberloafing, specifically using attentiveness and anger as mediators, respectively. It also investigates the effect of trait mindfulness as a moderator on the effect of hindrance stressors on cyberloafing through anger. We collected data from 304 full-time Indian employees, working in broad-ranging industries and functions. The findings showed that challenge stressors have an indirect negative effect on cyberloafing through attentiveness. The results also indicated that anger partially mediates the positive relationship between hindrance stressors and cyberloafing. Simple moderation analysis revealed that high trait mindfulness lowers the impact of hindrance stressors on anger. Moreover, trait mindfulness moderated the indirect effect of hindrance stressors on cyberloafing through anger, in a way that the indirect effect became weaker in the case of high trait mindfulness. To regulate cyberloafing, we discussed the importance of optimizing challenge stressors to increase attentiveness and enhancing trait mindfulness to weaken the negative effects of hindrance stressors on anger and cyberloafing in the context of the theoretical and practical contribution of the study.


Agarwal, U. A. (2019). Impact of Supervisors’ Perceived Communication Style on Subordinate’s Psychological Capital and Cyberloafing. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 23.

Agarwal, U. A., & Avey, J. B. (2020). Abusive supervisors and employees who cyberloaf: examining the roles of psychological capital and contract breach. Internet Research, 30(3), 789-809.

Aghaz, A., & Sheikh, A. (2016). Cyberloafing and job burnout: An investigation in the knowledge-intensive sector. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 51-60.

Alharthi, S., Levy, Y., Wang, L., & Hur, I. (2021). Employees’ mobile cyberslacking and their commitment to the organization. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 61(2), 141-153.

Anandarajan, M., & Simmers, C. A. (2004). Constructive and dysfunctional personal web usage in the workplace: mapping employee attitudes. In Personal web usage in the workplace: A guide to effective human resources management (pp. 1-27), IGI Global, Hershey, PE, USA.

Andel, S. A., Kessler, S. R., Pindek, S., Kleinman, G., & Spector, P. E. (2019). Is cyberloafing more complex than we originally thought? Cyberloafing as a coping response to workplace aggression exposure. Computers in Human Behavior, 101, 124-130.

Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2010). Laboratory stressors in clinically anxious and non-anxious individuals: The moderating role of mindfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(6), 495-505.

Askew, K. (2012). The relationship between cyberloafing and task performance and an examination of the theory of planned behavior as a model of cyberloafing. University of South Florida, Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations.

Askew, K., Buckner, J. E., Taing, M. U., Ilie, A., Bauer, J. A., & Coovert, M. D. (2014). Explaining cyberloafing: The role of the theory of planned behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 510-519.

Aunger, R., Schmidt, W. P., Ranpura, A., Coombes, Y., Maina, P. M., Matiko, C. N., & Curtis, V. (2010). Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya. Social Science & Medicine, 70(3), 383-391.

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45.

Batabyal, S. K., & Bhal, K. T. (2023). Push-pull factors and means-end chain framework of cyberloafing: a soft laddering study using LadderUX. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, 21(1), 143-160

Batabyal, S.K., & Bhal, K.T. (2020). Traditional cyberloafing, mobile cyberloafing and personal mobile-internet loafing in business organizations: Exploring cognitive ethical logics. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, 18(4), 631-647.

Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C. P. (1987). Practical issues in structural modeling. Sociological Methods & Research, 16(1), 78-117.

Bhattacharya, R. (2016). Number of women in workforce stagnant, reveals survey. Retrieved from

Bhattacharya, R. (2022). White-collar job openings stay above pre-Covid levels in April. Retrieved from

Bhimavarapu, R., Mohanty, P. K., Acharya, A., & Gupta, M. (2021). Interactive app-based services: Recovery evaluations and the mediating role of satisfaction in the relationship between customer-brand engagement and electronic word of mouth. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 25.

Blau, G., Yang, Y., & Ward-Cook, K. (2006). Testing a measure of cyberloafing. Journal of Allied Health, 35(1), 9-17.

Block, W. (2001). Cyberslacking, business ethics and managerial economics. Journal of Business Ethics, 33(3), 225-231.

Borders, A., Earleywine, M., & Jajodia, A. (2010). Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination?. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 36(1), 28-44.

Breevaart, K., & Bakker, A. B. (2018). Daily job demands and employee work engagement: The role of daily transformational leadership behavior. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(3), 338.

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822.

Cavanaugh, M. A., Boswell, W. R., Roehling, M. V., & Boudreau, J. W. (2000). An empirical examination of self-reported work stress among US managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 65.

Chatterjee, S. (2021). Impact on addiction of online platforms on quality of life. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 25.

Chen, H., Wang, H., Yuan, M., & Xu, S. (2021). Daily challenge/hindrance demands and cognitive wellbeing: a multilevel moderated mediation model. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 616002.

Cheng, L., Li, W., Zhai, Q. and Smyth, R. (2014). Understanding personal use of the internet at work: an integrated model of neutralization techniques and general deterrence theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 220-228.

Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: a theoretical extension and meta-analytic test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 834.

Creswell, J. D., & Lindsay, E. K. (2014). How does mindfulness training affect health? A mindfulness stress buffering account. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(6), 401-407.

Dane, E., & Brummel, B. J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations, 67(1), 105-128.

Davids, T. W. R. (Ed.). (1881). Buddhist Suttas (Vol. 11). Clarendon Press, London, UK.

Donald, J. N., Sahdra, B. K., Van Zanden, B., Duineveld, J. J., Atkins, P. W., Marshall, S. L., & Ciarrochi, J. (2019). Does your mindfulness benefit others? A systematic review and meta‐analysis of the link between mindfulness and prosocial behaviour. British Journal of Psychology, 110(1), 101-125.

Edwards, B. D., Franco‐Watkins, A. M., Cullen, K. L., Howell, J. W., & Acuff, R. E. Jr. (2014). Unifying the challenge‐hindrance and sociocognitive models of stress. International Journal of Stress Management, 21(2), 162.

Farb, N. A., Segal, Z. V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., & Anderson, A. K. (2007). Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 313-322.

Flinchbaugh, C., Luth, M. T., & Li, P. (2015). A challenge or a hindrance? Understanding the effects of stressors and thriving on life satisfaction. International Journal of Stress Management, 22(4), 323.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Friedman, W.H. (2000). Is the answer to Internet addiction Internet interdiction?. Proceedings of the Americas conference on information systems 2000, Association for Information System, California, 1562-1567.

Garrett, R. K., & Danziger, J. N. (2008). On cyberslacking: Workplace status and personal internet use at work. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(3), 287-292.

Good, D. J., Lyddy, C. J., Glomb, T. M., Bono, J. E., Brown, K. W., Duffy, M. K., ... & Lazar, S. W. (2016). Contemplating mindfulness at work: An integrative review. Journal of Management, 42(1), 114-142.

Güğerçin, U. (2020). Does techno-stress justify cyberslacking? An empirical study based on the neutralisation theory. Behaviour & Information Technology, 39(7), 824-836.

Gupta, S., & Bhal, K. T. (2020). Leadership styles, justice and whistle-blowing intention: testing a mediation model. European Business Review.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Thiele, K. O. (2017). Mirror, mirror on the wall: a comparative evaluation of composite-based structural equation modelling methods. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(5), 616-632.

Harman, H. H. (1960). Modern Factor Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications, New York, NY, USA,

Henle, C. A., & Blanchard, A. L. (2008). The interaction of work stressors and organizational sanctions on cyberloafing. Journal of Managerial Issues, 383-400.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: a new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Hülsheger, U. R., Lang, J. W., Depenbrock, F., Fehrmann, C., Zijlstra, F. R., & Alberts, H. J. (2014). The power of presence: the role of mindfulness at work for daily levels and change trajectories of psychological detachment and sleep quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(6), 1113-1128.

Huo, W., Zheng, G., Yan, J., Sun, L., & Han, L. (2022). Interacting with medical artificial intelligence: Integrating self-responsibility attribution, human–computer trust, and personality. Computers in Human Behavior, 132, 107253.

IBEF (2021). IT & BPM. Retrieved from

Jamaluddin, H., Ahmad, Z., Alias, M., & Simun, M. (2015). Personal Internet use: The use of personal mobile devices at the workplace. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 495-502.

Jiang, H., Tsohou, A., Siponen, M. and Li, Y. (2020). Examining the side effects of organizational internet monitoring on employees. Internet Research, 30(6), 1613-1630.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are. Hyperion, New York, NY, USA

Kahn, R. L., & Byosiere, P. (1992). Stress in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 571–650). Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Kang, J., & Jang, J. (2019). What do employees perceive as hindrance or challenge stressors in the hotel industry? The role that hope plays. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 18(3), 299-322.

Khansa, L., Kuem, J., Siponen, M., & Kim, S. S. (2017). To cyberloaf or not to cyberloaf: The impact of the announcement of formal organizational controls. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(1), 141-176.

Kiken, L. G., Garland, E. L., Bluth, K., Palsson, O. S., & Gaylord, S. A. (2015). From a state to a trait: Trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during intervention predict changes in trait mindfulness. Personality and Individual differences, 81, 41-46.

Kim, E., & Koh, E. (2018). Avoidant attachment and smartphone addiction in college students: The mediating effects of anxiety and self-esteem. Computers in Human Behavior, 84, 264-271.

Kim, S. J., & Byrne, S. (2011). Conceptualizing personal web usage in work contexts: A preliminary framework. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2271-2283.

Koay, K. Y. (2018). Workplace ostracism and cyberloafing: a moderated–mediation model. Internet Research, 28(4), 1122-1141.

Koay, K. Y., Lim, V. K., Soh, P. C. H., Ong, D. L. T., Ho, J. S. Y., & Lim, P. K. (2022). Abusive supervision and cyberloafing: A moderated moderation model of moral disengagement and negative reciprocity beliefs. Information & Management, 59(2), 103600.

Koay, K. Y., Soh, P. C. H., & Chew, K. W. (2017). Do employees’ private demands lead to cyberloafing? The mediating role of job stress. Management Research Review, 40(9), 1025-1038.

Krishnakumar, S., & Robinson, M. D. (2015). Maintaining an even keel: An affect-mediated model of mindfulness and hostile work behavior. Emotion, 15(5), 579.

Kwak, D. H., Lee, S., Ma, X., Lee, J., Lara, K., & Brandyberry, A. (2021). Announcement of formal controls as phase-shifting perceptions: their determinants and moderating role in the context of mobile loafing. Internet Research, 31(5), 1874-1898.

Lam, L. W. (2012). Impact of competitiveness on salespeople's commitment and performance. Journal of Business Research, 65(9), 1328-1334.

Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., ... & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445-1467.

Lavoie, J. A., & Pychyl, T. A. (2001). Cyberslacking and the procrastination superhighway: A web-based survey of online procrastination, attitudes, and emotion. Social Science Computer Review, 19(4), 431-444.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Springer Publishing Company, Cham, Switzerland.

LePine, J. A., Podsakoff, N. P., & LePine, M. A. (2005). A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor–hindrance stressor framework: An explanation for inconsistent relationships among stressors and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48(5), 764-775.

Lim, P.K., Koay, K.Y. and Chong, W.Y. (2021). The effects of abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion and organizational commitment on cyberloafing: a moderated-mediation examination. Internet Research, 31(2), 497-518.

Lim, V. K. G. (2002). The IT way of loafing on the job: cyberloafing, neutralizing and organizational justice. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(5), 675–694.

Lim, V. K., & Teo, T. S. (2005). Prevalence, perceived seriousness, justification and regulation of cyberloafing in Singapore: An exploratory study. Information & Management, 42(8), 1081-1093.

Lim, V. K., & Teo, T. S. (2022). Cyberloafing: A review and research agenda. Applied Psychology.

Lin, K. Y., & Lu, H. P. (2015). Predicting mobile social network acceptance based on mobile value and social influence. Internet Research, 25(1), 107-130.

Liu, B., Zhao, H., & Lu, Q. (2021). Effect of leader mindfulness on hindrance stress in nurses: The social mindfulness information processing path. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(11), 4414-4426.

Luo, X., Xu, F., Zhang, J., Xiao, S., & Xue, B. (2022). Effects of Organizational Controls on Employees' Cyber-loafing: The Moderating Effects of Trait Mindfulness. ACM SIGMIS Database: the DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 53(1), 61-79.

Mahatanankoon, P., Anandarajan, M., & Igbaria, M. (2004). Development of a measure of personal web usage in the workplace. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(1), 93-104.

Marikyan, D., Papagiannidis, S., Rana, O. F., & Ranjan, R. (2022). Blockchain adoption: A study of cognitive factors underpinning decision making. Computers in Human Behavior, 131, 107207.

Mazzola, J. J., & Disselhorst, R. (2019). Should we be “challenging” employees?: A critical review and meta‐analysis of the challenge‐hindrance model of stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(8), 949-961.

MEITY (2022). Employment Generation. Retrieved from

Meriac, J. P., Woehr, D. J., Gorman, C. A., & Thomas, A. L. (2013). Development and validation of a short form for the multidimensional work ethic profile. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(3), 155-164.

Ministry of Labour & Employment (2022). Employment Situation in New India Indicators back to pre-Covid levels but government keen on improving situation further. Retrieved from

Ng, J. C. Y., Shao, I. Y. T., & Liu, Y. (2016). This is not what I wanted: The effect of avoidance coping strategy on non-work-related social media use at the workplace. Employee Relations, 38(4), 466-486.

Nixon, A. E., Mazzola, J. J., Bauer, J., Krueger, J. R., & Spector, P. E. (2011). Can work make you sick? A meta‐analysis of the relationships between job stressors and physical symptoms. Work & Stress, 25(1), 1-22.

Nusrat, A., He, Y., Luqman, A., Waheed, A., & Dhir, A. (2021). Enterprise social media and cyber-slacking: A Kahn’s model perspective. Information & Management, 58(1), 103405.

Nyer, P. U. (1997). A study of the relationships between cognitive appraisals and consumption emotions. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(4), 296-304.

O’Neill, T. A., Hambley, L. A., & Bercovich, A. (2014). Prediction of cyberslacking when employees are working away from the office. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 291-298.

O’Neill, T. A., Hambley, L. A., & Chatellier, G. S. (2014b). Cyberslacking, engagement, and personality in distributed work environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 40, 152-160.

Page, D. (2015). Teachers’ personal web use at work. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(5), 443-453.

Pavlou, P. A., Liang, H., & Xue, Y. (2007). Understanding and mitigating uncertainty in online exchange relationships: A principal-agent perspective. MIS quarterly, 31(1), 105-136.

Pearsall, M. J., Ellis, A. P., & Stein, J. H. (2009). Coping with challenge and hindrance stressors in teams: Behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109(1), 18-28.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Polito, A. (1997). Cyberloafing can be curbed. Workforce, 76, 18.

Reb, J., Narayanan, J., & Ho, Z. W. (2015). Mindfulness at work: Antecedents and consequences of employee awareness and absent-mindedness. Mindfulness, 6(1), 111-122.

Reina, C. S., & Kudesia, R. S. (2020). Wherever you go, there you become: How mindfulness arises in everyday situations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 159, 78-96.

Restubog, S. L. D., Garcia, P. R. J. M., Toledano, L. S., Amarnani, R. K., Tolentino, L. R., & Tang, R. L. (2011). Yielding to (cyber)-temptation: Exploring the buffering role of self-control in the relationship between organizational justice and cyberloafing behavior in the workplace. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(2), 247-251.

Rodell, J. B., & Judge, T. A. (2009). Can “good” stressors spark “bad” behaviors? The mediating role of emotions in links of challenge and hindrance stressors with citizenship and counterproductive behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1438.

Schuman-Olivier, Z., Trombka, M., Lovas, D. A., Brewer, J. A., Vago, D. R., Gawande, R., Dunne, J. P., Lazar, S. W., Loucks, E. B., & Fulwiler, C. (2020). Mindfulness and behavior change. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 28(6), 371–394.

Selye, H. (1982). History and present status of the stress concept. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of Stress (pp. 7-17). Free Press, New York, USA.

She, Z., & Li, Q. (2022). When Too Little or Too Much Hurts: Evidence for a Curvilinear Relationship Between Cyberloafing and Task Performance in Public Organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 1-18.

Sheikh, A., Atashgah, M. S., & Adibzadegan, M. (2015). The antecedents of cyberloafing: A case study in an Iranian copper industry. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 172-179.

Singh, S. (2020). An integrated model combining ECM and UTAUT to explain users’ post-adoption behaviour towards mobile payment systems. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 24.

Soral, P., Arayankalam, J., & Pandey, J. (2020). The Impact of Ambivalent Perception of Bureaucratic Structure on Cyberloafing. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 24.

Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 269-292.

Sun, J. (2014). Mindfulness in context: A historical discourse analysis. Contemporary Buddhism, 15(2), 394-415.

Tadić, M., Bakker, A. B., & Oerlemans, W. G. (2015). Challenge versus hindrance job demands and well‐being: A diary study on the moderating role of job resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(4), 702-725.

Tandon, A., Kaur, P., Ruparel, N., Islam, J. U., & Dhir, A. (2022). Cyberloafing and cyberslacking in the workplace: systematic literature review of past achievements and future promises. Internet Research, 32(1), 55-89.

Ugrin, J. C., Pearson, J. M., & Odom, M. D. (2008). Profiling cyber-slackers in the workplace: Demographic, cultural, and workplace factors. Journal of Internet Commerce, 6(3), 75-89.

Usman, M., Javed, U., Shoukat, A., & Bashir, N. A. (2021). Does meaningful work reduce cyberloafing? Important roles of affective commitment and leader-member exchange. Behaviour & Information Technology, 40(2), 206-220.

Van den Broeck, A., De Cuyper, N., De Witte, H., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). Not all job demands are equal: Differentiating job hindrances and job challenges in the job demands–resources model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19(6), 735–759.

Van Doorn, O. N. (2011). Cyberloafing: A multi-dimensional construct placed in a theoretical framework, MS Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven: Netherlands. Retrieved from

Varghese, L., & Barber, L. K. (2017). A preliminary study exploring moderating effects of role stressors on the relationship between Big Five personality traits and workplace cyberloafing. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(4).

Verma, S., & Singh, V. (2022). Impact of artificial intelligence-enabled job characteristics and perceived substitution crisis on innovative work behavior of employees from high-tech firms. Computers in Human Behavior, 131, 107215.

Vitak, J., Crouse, J., & LaRose, R. (2011). Personal Internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1751-1759.

Wallace, J. C., Edwards, B. D., Arnold, T., Frazier, M. L., & Finch, D. M. (2009). Work stressors, role-based performance, and the moderating influence of organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 254-262. doi: 10.1037/a0013090

Webster, J. R., Beehr, T. A., & Love, K. (2011). Extending the challenge-hindrance model of occupational stress: The role of appraisal. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 505-516.

Wei, S., Zhu, F., & Chen, X. (2020). Do stressors stifle or facilitate employees' innovative use of enterprise systems: the moderating role of IT mindfulness. Information Technology & People, 34(3), 955-977.

Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18(1), 1-74.

Xie, L., Pinto, J., & Zhong, B. (2022). Building community resilience on social media to help recover from the COVID-19 pandemic. Computers in Human Behavior, 134, 107294.

Xu, C., Zheng, X., & Yang, F. (2023). Examining the effects of negative emotions on review helpfulness: The moderating role of product price. Computers in Human Behavior, 139, 107501.

Xu, L., & Wang, J. (2020). Influence of Challenge–Hindrance Stressors on Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior: Mediating Role of Emotions. Sustainability, 12(18), 7576.

Zakrzewski, C., (2016). The key to getting workers to stop wasting time online. Retrieved from

Zhang, J., Akhtar, M.N., Zhang, Y. and Sun, S. (2020). Are overqualified employees bad apples? A dual-pathway model of cyberloafing. Internet Research, 30(1), 289-313.

Zhang, Y., LePine, J. A., Buckman, B. R., & Wei, F. (2014). It's not fair… or is it? The role of justice and leadership in explaining work stressor–job performance relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), 675-697.

Zhong, J., Chen, Y., Yan, J., & Luo, J. (2022). The mixed blessing of cyberloafing on innovation performance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Computers in Human Behavior, 126, 106982.

Zhou, B., Li, Y., Hai, M., Wang, W., & Niu, B. (2021). Challenge-hindrance stressors and cyberloafing: A perspective of resource conservation versus resource acquisition. Current Psychology, 1-10.

Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, P., & Sharifiatashgah, M. (2021). The relationship between perceived crowding and cyberloafing in open offices at Iranian IT-based companies. Cognition, Technology & Work, 23(2), 331-342.

Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, P., Viera-Armas, M., & García, G. D. B. (2019). Does supervisors’ mindfulness keep employees from engaging in cyberloafing out of compassion at work?. Personnel Review, 49(2), 670-687.




How to Cite

Batabyal, S. K., & Bhal, K. T. (2023). Do Challenge and Hindrance Stressors Effect Cyberloafing Differently? Attentiveness and Anger as Mediators and Trait Mindfulness as a Moderator. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 27.



Research Articles