Saving the environment from the internet: A polynomial mitigation model of reducing Individual Internet Consumption through Internet Pricing and Environmental Awareness


  • Ayodhya Wathuge Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, Queensland
  • Darshana Sedera Southern Cross University, Gold Coast, Queensland



Environmental awareness, internet use, price, polynomial regression, longitudinal survey


The ever-increasing internet usage purports to make substantial damage to the environment as a result of the emissions arising from the internet supporting infrastructures like data centers. However, there has been much less discussion on creating an awareness of the damage that the internet does to the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the internet use can be reduced at the individual level by calibrating internet price and one’s environmental awareness. The study employs a population-based survey experiment and conducts a polynomial regression analysis using a sample of 326 individuals to understand the conjoined relationship between internet price and environmental awareness. The results indicate that internet price affordability moderated the relationship between environmental awareness and internet usage. Although, before inducing awareness, pricing plays a major role in changing consumption, after inducing awareness the significance of pricing decreases, and awareness tends to determine the consumption. Moreover, the multi-group analysis infers that age does not show any significance on price affordability and environmental awareness, although males display a high price sensitivity and responsiveness towards awareness than their female counterparts.


Abdul-Wahab, S. A., & Abdo, J. (2010). The effects of demographic factors on the environmental awareness of Omani citizens. Human and ecological risk assessment: An International Journal, 16(2), 380-401. doi:

Abrahamse, W., & Steg, L. (2011). Factors related to household energy use and intention to reduce it: The role of psychological and socio-demographic variables. Human ecology review, 18(1), 30-40. doi:

Aebli, A., Volgger, M., & Taplin, R. (2021). A two-dimensional approach to travel motivation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-16. doi:

Aengenheyster, M., Feng, Q. Y., Van Der Ploeg, F., & Dijkstra, H. A. (2018). The point of no return for climate action. Earth System Dynamics, 9(3), 1085-1095. doi:

Aldossary, M., & Djemame, K. (2016, September). Energy consumption-based pricing model for cloud computing. Paper presented at the 32nd UK Performance Engineering Workshop, University of Bradford, UK. Retrieved January 20, 2020, from

Aldossary, M., Djemame, K., Alzamil, I., Kostopoulos, A., Dimakis, A., & Agiatzidou, E. (2019). Energy-aware cost prediction and pricing of virtual machines in cloud computing environments. Future Generation Computer Systems, 93, 442-459. doi:

Alford, B. L., & Biswas, A. (2002). The effects of discount level, price consciousness and sale proneness on consumers' price perception and behavioral intention. Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 775-783. doi:

Aminrad, Z., Zakaria, S., & Hadi, A. S. (2011). Influence of age and level of education on environmental awareness and attitude: case study on Iranian students in Malaysian Universities. The Social Sciences, 6(1), 15-19. doi:10.3923/sscience.2011.15.19

Andrae, A., & Edler, T. (2015). On Global Electricity Usage of Communication Technology: Trends to 2030. Challenges, 6(1), 117-157. doi:10.3390/challe6010117

Arcury, T. A., & Christianson, E. H. (1993). Rural-urban differences in environmental knowledge and actions. The Journal of Environmental Education, 25(1), 19-25. doi:10.1080/00958964.1993.9941940

Arlt, D., Hoppe, I., & Wolling, J. (2011). Climate change and media usage: Effects on problem awareness and behavioural intentions. International Communication Gazette, 73(1-2), 45-63. doi:

Atwater, L., Waldman, D., Ostroff, C., Robie, C., & Johnson, K. M. (2005). Self–other agreement: Comparing its relationship with performance in the US and Europe. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13(1), 25-40. doi:

Ball, K., McNaughton, S. A., Mhurchu, C. N., Andrianopoulos, N., Inglis, V., McNeilly, B., Le, H. N., Leslie, D., Pollard, C., & Crawford, D. (2011). Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies. BioMed Central Public Health, 11(1), 715. doi:

Bateni, M. H., Hajiaghayi, M. T., Jafarpour, S., & Pei, D. (2011, April). Towards an efficient algorithmic framework for pricing cellular data service. Paper presented at the IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, Shanghai, China. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from

Bell, P. A., Greene, T. C., Fisher, J. D., & Baum, A. (1996). Environmental psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Benitez-Amado, J., Henseler, J., & Castillo, A. (2017, July). Development and update of guidelines to perform and report partial least squares path modeling in Information Systems research. Paper presented at the 21st Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Langkawi, Malaysia. Retrieved March 02, 2020, from

Benitez-Amado, J., Llorens-Montes, F. J., & Fernandez-Perez, V. (2013, August). The relationship between IT infrastructure leveraging, talent management and operational sustainability, and their effects on the business value of the operations strategy. Paper presented at the Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved from March 02, 2020 from

Box, G. E., & Draper, N. R. (1987). Empirical Model-Building and Response Surfaces. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Brewer, N. T., Hall, M. G., Noar, S. M., Parada, H., Stein-Seroussi, A., Bach, L. E., Hanley, S., & Ribisl, K. M. (2016). Effect of pictorial cigarette pack warnings on changes in smoking behavior: a randomized clinical trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 176(7), 905-912. 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.2621

Briscar, J. R. (2017). Data Transmission and Energy Efficient Internet Data Centers. American University Law Review, 67(1), 233-268

Brounen, D., Kok, N., & Quigley, J. M. (2013). Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households. Energy Economics, 38, 42-50. doi:

Bulgurcu, B., Cavusoglu, H., & Benbasat, I. (2010). Information security policy compliance: an empirical study of rationality-based beliefs and information security awareness. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 34(3), 523-548. doi:10.2307/25750690

Cantrell, J., Kreslake, J. M., Ganz, O., Pearson, J. L., Vallone, D., Anesetti-Rothermel, A., Xiao, H., & Kirchner, T. R. (2013). Marketing little cigars and cigarillos: advertising, price, and associations with neighborhood demographics. American Journal of Public Health, 103(10), 1902-1909. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301362

Chaloupka, F. J., & Grossman, M. (1996). Price, tobacco control policies and youth smoking. National Bureau of Economic Research (Working Paper No. 5740). doi:10.3386/w5740

Chen, H., Hui, H., Su, Z., Fang, D., & Hui, Y. (2017). Real-Time Pricing Strategy Based on the Stability of Smart Grid for Green Internet of Things. Mobile Information Systems, 2017, 1-11. doi:

Chen, T., Sze, N., Saxena, S., Pinjari, A. R., Bhat, C. R., & Bai, L. (2020). Evaluation of penalty and enforcement strategies to combat speeding offences among professional drivers: a Hong Kong stated preference experiment. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 135, 105-366. doi:

Chi, X., Hong, X., & Chen, X. (2020). Profiles and sociodemographic correlates of Internet addiction in early adolescents in southern China. Addictive Behaviors, 106, 106-385. doi:

Clement, J. (2019). Global digital population as of October 2019. Retrieved March 05, 2020, from

Clement, J. (2020). Age distribution of internet users worldwide 2019. Retrieved March 05,2020, from

Cooper, V. A., & Molla, A. (2014). Absorptive capacity and contextual factors that influence green IT assimilation. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 18(3), 271-288. doi:

Cornell, J. A., & Khuri, A. I. (1987). Response surfaces: designs and analyses. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Curry, S. J., Wagner, E. H., & Grothaus, L. C. (1991). Evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation interventions with a self-help smoking cessation program. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 59(2), 318. doi:

De Vries, H., Mudde, A., Leijs, I., Charlton, A., Vartiainen, E., Buijs, G., Clemente, M. P., Storm, H., Navarro, A. G., & Nebot, M. (2003). The European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (EFSA): an example of integral prevention. Health Education Research, 18(5), 611-626. doi:

Delhaye, E. (2007). The enforcement of speeding: Should fines be higher for repeated offences? Transportation planning and technology, 30(4), 355-375. doi:

Dijkstra, T. K. (2010). Latent variables and indices: Herman Wold’s basic design and partial least squares. In Handbook of Partial Least Squares (pp. 23-46). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Dijkstra, T. K., & Henseler, J. (2015). Consistent partial least squares path modeling. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 39(2), 297-316. doi:


Ding, A. (2003). Youth are more sensitive to price changes in cigarettes than adults. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 76(3), 115-124.

Ebbs, D., Dahlhaus, P., Barton, A., & Kandra, H. (2018). An unexpected decrease in urban water demand: making discoveries possible by taking a long-term view. Water Policy, 20(3), 617-630. doi:

Edwards, J. R., & Parry, M. E. (1993). On the use of polynomial regression equations as an alternative to difference scores in organizational research. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6), 1577-1613. doi:

Elliot, S., & Binney, D. (2008). Environmentally sustainable ICT: Developing corporate capabilities and an industry-relevant IS research agenda. Paper presented at the Pacific Asia Conference in Information Systems, Suzhou, China. Retrieved March 01, 2020, from

Eriksson, L., Garvill, J., & Nordlund, A. M. (2006). Acceptability of travel demand management measures: The importance of problem awareness, personal norm, freedom, and fairness. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26(1), 15-26. doi:

Fan, Q. (2005). Regulatory factors influencing Internet access in Australia and China: a comparative analysis. Telecommunications Policy, 29(2-3), 191-203. doi:

Farrelly, M. C., Duke, J. C., Nonnemaker, J., MacMonegle, A. J., Alexander, T. N., Zhao, X., Delahanty, J. C., Rao, P., & Allen, J. A. (2017). Association between The Real Cost media campaign and smoking initiation among youths—United States, 2014–2016. 66(2), 47-50. Retrieved from

Ferrer, R. A., Orehek, E., Scheier, M. F., & O'Connell, M. E. (2018). Cigarette tax rates, behavioral disengagement, and quit ratios among daily smokers. Journal of Economic Psychology, 66, 13-21. doi:

France24 (Producer). (2017). The hidden pollution of the internet. Retrieved from

Fricker, R. D. (2008). Sampling methods for web and e-mail surveys. In The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods (pp. 195-216). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Frieden, T. R., Mostashari, F., Kerker, B. D., Miller, N., Hajat, A., & Frankel, M. (2005). Adult tobacco use levels after intensive tobacco control measures: New York City, 2002–2003. American Journal of Public Health, 95(6), 1016-1023. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.058164

Ghansah, F. A., Owusu-Manu, D.-G., Ayarkwa, J., Edwards, D. J., & Hosseini, M. R. (2021). Assessing the level of awareness of smart building technologies (SBTs) in the developing countries. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology. doi:


Giesbrecht, N., & Greenfield, T. K. (2003). Preventing alcohol-related problems in the US through policy: Media campaigns, regulatory approaches and environmental interventions. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24(1), 63-104. doi:

Goiri, Í., Katsak, W., Le, K., Nguyen, T. D., & Bianchini, R. (2013). Parasol and greenswitch: Managing datacenters powered by renewable energy. Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Programming Languages Notices, 48(4), 51-64. doi:

Google. (2019). Google Environmental Report. Retrieved January 08, 2020, from

Grishchenko, N. (2020). The gap not only closes: Resistance and reverse shifts in the digital divide in Russia. Telecommunications Policy, 44(8), 102004. doi:


Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., Gudergan, S. P., Fischer, A., Nitzl, C., & Menictas, C. (2018). Partial least squares structural equation modeling-based discrete choice modeling: an illustration in modeling retailer choice. Business Research. doi:10.1007/s40685-018-0072-4

Hallegatte, S. (2009). Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 240-247. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.12.003

Haltinner, K., & Sarathchandra, D. (2021). The Nature and Nuance of Climate Change Skepticism in the United States. Rural Sociology, 1-30. doi:


Han, T., Coles, H., Price, P. N., Gadgil, A., & Tschudi, W. (2019). Corrosion coupons may not be useful for predicting data center equipment failure rates. Center of Expertise for Energy Efficiency in Datacenters, United States Department of Energy. Retrieved March 22, 2020, from

Haque, M. M., Ahmend, A., & Rahman, A. (2013). Impacts of water price and restrictions on water demand: A case study for Australia. In Water Conservation: Practices, Challenges and Future Implications (pp. 127-145). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Henriksen, L. (2012). Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place. Tobacco Control, 21(2), 147-153. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050416

Henseler, J. (2007, September). A new and simple approach to multi-group analysis in partial least squares path modeling. Paper presented at the The 5th International Symposium on PLS and Related Methods, Oslo, Norway. Retrieved April 10, 2020, from

Henseler, J., & Chin, W. W. (2010). A comparison of approaches for the analysis of interaction effects between latent variables using partial least squares path modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 17(1), 82-109. doi:

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., Ketchen Jr, D. J., Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182-209. doi:

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). Testing measurement invariance of composites using partial least squares. International Marketing Review, 33(3), 405-431. doi:

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In R. R. Sinkovics & P. N. Ghauri (Eds.), New Challenges to International Marketing (Vol. 20, pp. 277-319). Bingly: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Henseler, J., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Goodness-of-fit indices for partial least squares path modeling. Computational Statistics, 28(2), 565-580. doi:

Hershey, J. C., Niederdeppe, J., Evans, W. D., Nonnemaker, J., Blahut, S., Holden, D., Messeri, P., & Haviland, M. L. (2005). The theory of" truth": how counterindustry campaigns affect smoking behavior among teens. Health Psychology, 24(1), 22-31. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.1.22

Hill, J., Widdicks, K., & Hazas, M. (2020, June). Mapping the Scope of Software Interventions for Moderate Internet Use on Mobile Devices. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability, Bristol, United Kingdom. Retrieved August 20, 2020, from

Hobman, E. V., & Frederiks, E. R. (2014). Barriers to green electricity subscription in Australia:“Love the environment, love renewable energy… but why should I pay more?”. Energy Research & Social Science, 3(1), 78-88. doi:

Hollingworth, W., Ebel, B. E., McCarty, C. A., Garrison, M. M., Christakis, D. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2006). Prevention of deaths from harmful drinking in the United States: the potential effects of tax increases and advertising bans on young drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(2), 300-308. doi:

Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. doi:

IPCC. (2021). Summary for Policymakers. In V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, A. Piran, S. L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M. I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J. B. R. Matthews, T. K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu, & B. Zhou (Eds.), Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Cambridge University Press. In Press. Retrieved September 05, 2020, from

Islam, M., Saidur, R., Rahim, N., & Solangi, K. (2010). Usage of solar energy and its status in Malaysia. Engineering e-Transaction, 5(1), 6-10.

ITU. (2019). The digital gender gap is growing fast in developing countries. Retrieved April 05, 2020, from

ITU. (2020). Affordability. Retrieved November 20, 2020, from


Izquierdo, F. A., Ramírez, B. A., McWilliams, J. M., & Ayuso, J. P. (2011). The endurance of the effects of the penalty point system in Spain three years after. Main influencing factors. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(3), 911-922. doi:


Jakovcevic, A., & Steg, L. (2013). Sustainable transportation in Argentina: Values, beliefs, norms and car use reduction. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 20, 70-79. doi:

Jenkin, T. A., McShane, L., & Webster, J. (2011). Green information technologies and systems: Employees’ perceptions of organizational practices. Business & Society, 50(2), 266-314. doi:

Jenkin, T. A., Webster, J., & McShane, L. (2011). An agenda for ‘Green’information technology and systems research. Information and Organization, 21(1), 17-40. doi:

Jylhä, K. M., Tam, K. P., & Milfont, T. L. (2020). Acceptance of group‐based dominance and climate change denial: A cross‐cultural study in Hong Kong, New Zealand, and Sweden. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. doi:10.1111/ajsp.12444

Kemp, S. (2019). Digital Around The World In 2019. Retrieved Feburary 20, 2020, from

Kenney, M., & Zysman, J. (2020). COVID-19 and the increasing centrality and power of platforms in China, the US, and beyond. Management and Organization Review, 16(4), 747-752. doi:

Khalaj, A. H., Scherer, T., Siriwardana, J., & Halgamuge, S. (2014, December). Increasing the thermal efficiency of an operational data center using cold aisle containment. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability, Colombo, Sri Lanka. doi:10.1109/ICIAFS.2014.7069633

Kivetz, Y., & Tyler, T. R. (2007). Tomorrow I’ll be me: The effect of time perspective on the activation of idealistic versus pragmatic selves. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102(2), 193-211. doi:

Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental education research, 8(3), 239-260. doi:

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (2 ed.). New Delhi: New Age International.

Kuruzovich, J., Viswanathan, S., Agarwal, R., Gosain, S., & Weitzman, S. (2008). Marketspace or marketplace? Online information search and channel outcomes in auto retailing. Information Systems Research, 19(2), 182-201. doi:

Kuss, D., Griffiths, M., Karila, L., & Billieux, J. (2014). Internet addiction: A systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(25), 4026-4052.

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x

Lee, Y. S., Han, D. H., Kim, S. M., & Renshaw, P. F. (2013). Substance abuse precedes internet addiction. Addictive Behaviors, 38(4), 2022-2025. doi:


Lewis, I., Watson, B., & White, K. M. (2008). An examination of message-relevant affect in road safety messages: Should road safety advertisements aim to make us feel good or bad? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 11(6), 403-417. doi:

Li, C., Tang, J., Tang, H., & Luo, Y. (2019). Collaborative cache allocation and task scheduling for data-intensive applications in edge computing environment. Future Generation Computer Systems, 95, 249-264. doi:

Liang, J., Farh, C. I., & Farh, J.-L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71-92. doi:

Lin, S. H., & Johnson, R. E. (2015). A suggestion to improve a day keeps your depletion away: Examining promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors within a regulatory focus and ego depletion framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1381-1397. doi:10.1037/apl0000018

Liobikienė, G., & Poškus, M. S. (2019). The Importance of Environmental Knowledge for Private and Public Sphere Pro-Environmental Behavior: Modifying the Value-Belief-Norm Theory. Sustainability, 11(12), 3324. doi:

Liu, S. (2019). Global number of data centers 2015-2021. Retrieved January 28, 2020, from

López-Mosquera, N., & Sánchez, M. (2012). Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park. Journal of environmental management, 113, 251-262. doi:

Luchs, M. G., & Mooradian, T. A. (2011). Sex, Personality, and Sustainable Consumer Behaviour: Elucidating the Gender Effect. Journal of Consumer Policy, 35(1), 127-144. doi:10.1007/s10603-011-9179-0

Luís, S., Vauclair, C.-M., & Lima, M. L. (2018). Raising awareness of climate change causes? Cross-national evidence for the normalization of societal risk perception of climate change. Environmental Science & Policy, 80, 74-81. doi:


Lv, Q., & Rouskas, G. N. (2010). An economic model for pricing tiered network services. Annals of Telecommunications-annales des Télécommunications, 65(3-4), 147-161. doi:

Maibach, E. (1993). Social marketing for the environment: Using information campaigns to promote environmental awareness and behavior change. Health promotion international, 8(3), 209-224. doi:

Mathwick, C., & Rigdon, E. (2004). Play, flow, and the online search experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2), 324-332. doi:

McEvoy, J. (1972). The American concern with the environment. In J. W. R. Burch, J. N. H. Cheek, & L. Taylor (Eds.), Social Behavior, Natural Resources and the Environment (pp. 214-236). New York: Harper and Row.

McGinty, E. E., Goldman, H. H., Pescosolido, B., & Barry, C. L. (2015). Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination. Social Science & Medicine, 126, 73-85. doi:

McGinty, E. E., Webster, D. W., & Barry, C. L. (2013). Effects of news media messages about mass shootings on attitudes toward persons with serious mental illness and public support for gun control policies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(5), 494-501. doi:

McKenna, F. P. (2007). Do attitudes and intentions change across a speed awareness workshop? Paper presented at the Behavioural Research in Road Safety Seminar, London, United Kingdom. Retrieved March 20, 2020, from


Milne, J. E. (2014). Storms Ahead: Climate Change Adaptation Calls for Resilient Funding. Vermont Law Review, 39(4), 819-866.

Molla, A. (2013). Identifying IT sustainability performance drivers: Instrument development and validation. Information Systems Frontiers, 15(5), 705-723. doi:10.1007/s10796-013-9415-z

Molla, A., & Cooper, V. (2010). Green IT readiness: A framework and preliminary proof of concept. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 16(2), 5-23. doi:


Morgil, İ., Seçil, A., Seçken, N., Yavuz, S., & Oskay, Ö. Ö. (2004). The influence of computer-assisted education on environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 5(2), 99-110. doi:10.1039/B3RP90032K

Muratore, I. (2016). Teens as impulsive buyers: what is the role of price? International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 44(11), 1166-1180. doi:


Mutz, D. C. (2011). Population-based survey experiments. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Nagata, T., Setoguchi, S., Hemenway, D., & Perry, M. (2008). Effectiveness of a law to reduce alcohol-impaired driving in Japan. Injury Prevention, 14(1), 19-23. doi:

Nathanail, E., & Adamos, G. (2013). Road safety communication campaigns: Research designs and behavioral modeling. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 18, 107-122. doi:

Nemtsov, A. V. (1998). Alcohol‐related harm and alcohol consumption in Moscow before, during and after a major anti‐alcohol campaign. Addiction, 93(10), 1501-1510. doi:

Nevo, A., Turner, J. L., & Williams, J. W. (2016). Usage‐based pricing and demand for residential broadband. Econometrica, 84(2), 411-443. doi:

Oguchi, T. (2016). Achieving safe road traffic—the experience in Japan. International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences, 39(2), 110-116. doi:


Olexsak, S. J., & Meier, A. (2014). The electricity impacts of Earth Hour: An international comparative analysis of energy-saving behavior. Energy Research & Social Science, 2(1), 159-182. doi:

Pedulla, D. S., & Thébaud, S. (2015). Can we finish the revolution? Gender, work-family ideals, and institutional constraint. American sociological review, 80(1), 116-139. doi:

Petrunoff, N., Rissel, C., Wen, L. M., & Martin, J. (2015). Carrots and sticks vs carrots: Comparing approaches to workplace travel plans using disincentives for driving and incentives for active travel. Journal of Transport & Health, 2(4), 563-567. doi:

Pooley, J. A., & o’Connor, M. (2000). Environmental education and attitudes: Emotions and beliefs are what is needed. Environment and Behavior, 32(5), 711-723. doi:https://

Pope, D. A., Poe, L., Stein, J. S., Kaplan, B. A., DeHart, W. B., Mellis, A. M., Heckman, B. W., Epstein, L. H., Chaloupka, F. J., & Bickel, W. K. (2020). The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace: Demand and substitutability as a function of cigarette taxes and e-liquid subsidies. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 22(5), 782-790. doi:


Poulter, D. R., & McKenna, F. P. (2010). Evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety education intervention for pre‐drivers: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 163-181. doi:


Priem, R. L., & Butler, J. E. (2001). Tautology in the resource-based view and the implications of externally determined resource value: Further comments. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 57-66. doi:

Ranjit, Y. S., Snyder, L. B., Hamilton, M. A., & Rimal, R. N. (2017). Self-determination theory and risk behavior in a collectivistic society: preventing reckless driving in urban Nepal. Journal of Health Communication, 22(8), 672-681. doi:


Rivera, J., & De Leon, P. (2004). Is greener whiter? Voluntary environmental performance of western ski areas. Policy Studies Journal, 32(3), 417-437. doi:

Rundmo, T., & Iversen, H. (2004). Risk perception and driving behaviour among adolescents in two Norwegian counties before and after a traffic safety campaign. Safety science, 42(1), 1-21. doi:

Sahin, E. (2013). Predictors of Turkish Elementary Teacher Candidates' Energy Conservation Behaviors: An Approach on Value-Belief-Norm Theory. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 8(2), 269-283. doi:10.12973/ijese.2013.204a

Salahuddin, M., & Alam, K. (2015). Internet usage, electricity consumption and economic growth in Australia: A time series evidence. Telematics and Informatics, 32(4), 862-878. doi:10.1016/j.tele.2015.04.011

Schaap, M. M., Kunst, A. E., Leinsalu, M., Regidor, E., Ekholm, O., Dzurova, D., Helmert, U., Klumbiene, J., Santana, P., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2008). Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries. Tobacco Control, 17(4), 248-255. doi:

Schlagel, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). Assessing the measurement invariance of the four-dimensional cultural intelligence scale across countries: A composite model approach. European Management Journal, 34(6), 633–649.

Schulz, G. (2016). The green and virtual data center. Boca Raton, Florida, United States: CRC Press.

Sedera, D., Gable, G., & Chan, T. (2003, July). Survey Design: Insights from a Public Sector ERP Success Story. Paper presented at the 7th Pacific Asia conference on Information Systems, University of South Australia. Retrieved March 05, 2020, from

Sedera, D., Lokuge, S., Tushi, B., & Tan, F. (2017). Multi-disciplinary green IT archival analysis: A pathway for future studies. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 41(1), 674-773. doi:

Seidler, A.-R., Henkel, C., Fiedler, M., Kranz, J., Ixmeier, A., & Strunk, K. S. (2020). Promoting Eco-Sustainable Behavior with Gamification: An Experimental Study on the Alignment of Competing Goals. Paper presented at the Forty-First International Conference on Information Systems, India. Retrieved January 10, 2021, from

Sen, S., Joe-Wong, C., Ha, S., & Chiang, M. (2015). Smart data pricing: Using economics to manage network congestion. Communications of the ACM, 58(12), 86-93. doi:10.1145/2756543

Shanock, L. R., Baran, B. E., Gentry, W. A., Pattison, S. C., & Heggestad, E. D. (2010). Polynomial regression with response surface analysis: A powerful approach for examining moderation and overcoming limitations of difference scores. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(4), 543-554. doi:

Sheehan, M., Schonfeld, C., Ballard, R., Schofield, F., Najman, J., & Siskind, V. (1996). A three year outcome evaluation of a theory based drink driving education program. Journal of Drug Education, 26(3), 295-312. doi:

Shuja, J., Ahmad, R. W., Gani, A., Ahmed, A. I. A., Siddiqa, A., Nisar, K., Khan, S. U., & Zomaya, A. Y. (2017). Greening emerging IT technologies: techniques and practices. Journal of Internet Services and Applications, 8(1), 1-11. doi:

Sinha, I., & Batra, R. (1999). The effect of consumer price consciousness on private label purchase. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 16(3), 237-251. doi:


Spector, P. E., & Brannick, M. T. (2011). Methodological urban legends: The misuse of statistical control variables. Organizational Research Methods, 14(2), 287-305. doi:

Statista. (2019). Internet Of Things (IoT) Connected Devices Installed Base Worldwide From 2015 To 2025. Retrieved February 15, 2020, from


Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Cui, W., Baban, A., Glass, K., Pelzer, K., Tsuda, A., & Vinck, J. (2002). An international comparison of tobacco smoking, beliefs and risk awareness in university students from 23 countries. Addiction, 97(12), 1561-1571. doi:

Stern, P. C. (1999). Information, incentives, and proenvironmental consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Policy, 22(4), 461-478. doi:

Stern, P. C. (2000). New environmental theories: toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 407-424. doi:10.1111/0022-4537.00175

Stern, P. C., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G. A., & Kalof, L. (1999). A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmentalism. Human Ecology Review, 6(2), 81-97.

Syu, F.-K., Huang, M.-Y., & Huang, J.-J. (2010). A successful intervention to reduce cigarillo use among Baltimore youth. Fooyin Journal of Health Sciences, 2(3-4), 72-84. doi:

Thilina, D., Guruge, M., & Nanayakkara, N. (2020). A Descriptive Analysis on Digital Behaviour of Young Adults in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 9(6), 58-67. doi:10.35629/8028-0906055867

Thombs, D. L., & Osborn, C. J. (2019). Introduction to Addictive Behaviors (3 ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

UN. (2019). What's the cost of your search? Retrieved January 06, 2020, from

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., Maruping, L. M., & Bala, H. (2008). Predicting different conceptualizations of system use: the competing roles of behavioral intention, facilitating conditions, and behavioral expectation. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 32(3), 483-502. doi:

Venkatesh, V., & Goyal, S. (2010). Expectation disconfirmation and technology adoption: polynomial modeling and response surface analysis. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 34(2), 281-303. doi:

Verdonk-Kleinjan, W. M., Candel, M. J., Knibbe, R. A., Willemsen, M. C., & de Vries, H. (2011). Effects of a workplace-smoking ban in combination with tax increases on smoking in the Dutch population. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 13(6), 412-418. doi:

Wakefield, K. L., & Inman, J. J. (2003). Situational price sensitivity: the role of consumption occasion, social context and income. Journal of Retailing, 79(4), 199-212. doi:

Wathuge, A., & Sedera, D. (2021). An awareness-based model to minimize the environmental damage of the internet usage: A Longitudinal Study. Paper presented at the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Dubai. Retrieved August 20, 2021, from

Watts, R. L., & Zimmerman, J. L. (1978). Towards a positive theory of the determination of accounting standards. Accounting Review, 53(1), 112-134.

Whitmarsh, L., & O'Neill, S. (2010). Green identity, green living? The role of pro-environmental self-identity in determining consistency across diverse pro-environmental behaviours. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3), 305-314. doi:

Widdicks, K. (2020). Understanding and mitigating the impact of Internet demand in everyday life. Lancaster University.

Wold, H. (1989). Theoretical Empiricism. New York, USA: Paragon House.

Yang, S., Zhang, D., & Li, D. (2019). A Calculation Model for CO2 Emission Reduction of Energy Internet: A Case Study of Yanqing. Sustainability, 11(9), 2502. doi:

Yucedag, C., Kaya, L. G., & Cetin, M. (2018). Identifying and assessing environmental awareness of hotel and restaurant employees’ attitudes in the Amasra District of Bartin. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190(2), 60. doi:

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22. doi:

Zettelmeyer, F., Morton, F. S., & Silva-Risso, J. (2001). Cowboys or Cowards: Why are Internet car prices lower? National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 8667. doi:

Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., & Wang, X. (2012, September). Electricity bill capping for cloud-scale data centers that impact the power markets. Paper presented at the 41st International Conference on Parallel Processing, Pittsburgh. Retrieved March 06, 2020, from

Ziadat, A. H. (2010). Major factors contributing to environmental awareness among people in a third world country/Jordan. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 12(1), 135-145. doi:

Zimmermann, S., Meijer, I., Tiwari, M. K., Paredes, S., Michel, B., & Poulikakos, D. (2012). Aquasar: A hot water cooled data center with direct energy reuse. Energy, 43(1), 237-245. doi:




How to Cite

Wathuge, A. ., & Sedera, D. (2022). Saving the environment from the internet: A polynomial mitigation model of reducing Individual Internet Consumption through Internet Pricing and Environmental Awareness . Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 26.



Research on Green IS/IT