What’s behind a scratch card? Designing a mobile application using gamification to study customer loyalty: An experimental approach


  • Abhishek Behl Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
  • Vijay Pereira NEOMA Business School, Reims Campus, France




Gamification, Scratch cards, mobile app, self-determination theory, stimulus organism response, experiment


The use of game design elements (often called gamification) by firms to engage the customers has attracted attention in recent times. These game elements contribute to shaping up customer’s motivation and loyalty. Gamification is explored from the lens of both empirical as well as an experimental methodological standpoint. There still lacks substantial evidence that explains how and which types of rewards help to understand the customer's motivation. The study addresses this gap by designing an experimental study of 2x2 to address how gamified mobile apps used for making payments can help capture customer’s loyalty by offering them rewards. Data is collected from 385 customers who have been using mobile apps to make payments in the past. The data were tested to check if gamification positively helps the user hedonic and utilitarian motivation, which then positively impacts their loyalty. The study is also moderated by type of rewards (direct cash rewards v/s indirect third party partnered rewards) on the relationship of gamification and customer loyalty mediated through motivation. The results confirm that mobile payment apps' cash rewards are more useful, especially when the degree of uncertainty in the game element is high (scratch card). Additionally, they contribute to a higher degree of utilitarian benefits to the customers. The results contribute to the extension of the self-determination theory and stimulus organism response framework as well.


Admiraal, W., Huizenga, J., Akkerman, S., & Ten Dam, G. (2011). The concept of flow in collaborative game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1185-1194.

Agarwal, R., & Mehrotra, A. (2018). Understanding what matters to customers: The case of loyalty programs in the Indian context. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 17(4), 311-334.

Alvesson, M., & Sandberg, J. (2011). Generating research questions through problematization. Academy of Management Review, 36(2), 247-271.

Ashaduzzaman, M., Jebarajakirthy, C., Das, M., & Shankar, A. (2020). Acculturation and apparel store loyalty among immigrants in Western countries. Journal of Marketing Management, 37(5-6), 488-519.

Baptista, G., & Oliveira, T. (2017). Why so serious? Gamification impact in the acceptance of mobile banking services. Internet Research, 27(1), 118-39.

Behl, A., & Dutta, P. (2020). Engaging donors on crowdfunding platform in Disaster Relief Operations (DRO) using gamification: A Civic Voluntary Model (CVM) approach. International Journal of Information Management, 54, 102140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102140.

Behl, A., Dutta, P., Sheorey, P., & Singh, R. K. (2020). Examining the role of dialogic communication and trust in donation-based crowdfunding tasks using information quality perspective. The TQM Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-06-2020-0139

Bhattacherjee, A. (2001). Understanding information systems continuance: An expectation–confirmation model. MIS Quarterly, 25(3), 351–370.

Bittner, J. V., & Shipper, J. (2014). Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing.

Blau, P. (2017). Exchange and power in social life. New York, USA: Routledge.

Blohm, I., & Leimeister, J. M. (2013). Gamification. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 5(4), 275-278.

Bonde, M. T., Makransky, G., Wandall, J., Larsen, M., Morsing, V., Jarmer, M., et al. (2014). Improving biotech education through gamified laboratory simulations. Nature Biotechnology, 32(7), 694–697.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295-336.

Chiu, Y. L., Chen, L. J., Du, J., & Hsu, Y. T. (2018). Studying the relationship between the perceived value of online group-buying websites and customer loyalty: the moderating role of referral rewards. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 33(5), 665-679. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBIM-03-2017-0083.

Cho, W. C., Lee, K. Y., & Yang, S. B. (2019). What makes you feel attached to smartwatches? The stimulus–organism–response (S–O–R) perspectives. Information Technology & People. 32 No. 2, pp. 319-343. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-05-2017-0152.

Christy, K. R., & Fox, J. (2014). Leaderboards in a virtual classroom: A test of stereo-type threat and social comparison explanations for women’s math performance. Computers and Education, 78, 66–77.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Play and intrinsic rewards. In EDITORS MISSING Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 135-153). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Csikzentmihaly, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience (Vol. 1990). New York: Harper & Row.

Danaher, P. J., Sajtos, L., & Danaher, T. S. (2020). Tactical use of rewards to enhance loyalty program effectiveness. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 37(3), 505-520.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(14), 1111-1132.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of research in personality, 19(2), 109-134.

Deterding, S. (2012). Gamification: designing for motivation. Interactions, 19(4), 14-17.

Dide, A. S., & Basu, C. (1994). Customer Loyalty: Toward an integrated framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-105.

Eickhoff, C., Harris, C. G., de Vries, A. P., & Srinivasan, P. (2012). Quality through flow and immersion: Gamifying crowdsourced relevance assessments. In Proceedings of the 35th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Portland, Oregon, USA, August 12–16, 2012, (pp. 871–88)

Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2(1), 335-362.

Evanschitzky, H., Ramaseshan, B., Woisetschläger, D. M., Richelsen, V., Blut, M., & Backhaus, C. (2012). Consequences of customer loyalty to the loyalty program and to the company. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(5), 625-638.

Faiola, A., Newlon, C., Pfaff, M., & Smyslova, O. (2013). Correlating the effects of flow and telepresence in virtual worlds: Enhancing our understanding of user behavior in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1113-1121.

Filsecker, M., & Hickey, D. T. (2014). A multilevel analysis of the effects of external rewards on elementary students’ motivation, engagement and learning in an educational game. Computers and Education, 75, 136–148.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Persuasive technology: Using computers to change what we think and do. Boston, STATE MISSING, USA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Gallego-Durán, F. J., Villagrá-Arnedo, C. J., Satorre-Cuerda, R., Compañ-Rosique, P., Molina-Carmona, R., & Llorens-Largo, F. (2019). A Guide for game-design-based gamification. Informatics, 6(4), 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/informatics6040049.

Gatautis, R., Vitkauskaite, E., Gadeikiene, A., & Piligrimiene, Z. (2016). Gamification as a mean of driving online consumer behaviour: SOR model perspective. Engineering Economics, 27(1), 90-97.

Hakulinen, L., Auvinen, T., & Korhonen, A. (2013). Empirical study on the effect of achievement badges in TRAKLA2 online learning environment. In Proceedings of Learning and Teaching in Computing and Engineering (LaTiCE) Conference Macau, March 21–24, 2013, (pp. 47–54).

Hamari, J. (2013). Transforming homo economicus into homo ludens: A field experiment on gamification in a utilitarian peer-to-peer trading service. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(4), 236-245.

Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2014). Measuring flow in gamification: Dispositional flow scale-2. Computers in Human Behavior, 40, 133-143.

Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2015). Why do people use gamification services?. International Journal of Information Management, 35(4), 419-431.

Hamari, J., Shernoff, D. J., Rowe, E., Coller, B., Asbell-Clarke, J., & Edwards, T. (2016). Challenging games help students learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 170-179.

Harwood, T., & Garry, T. (2015). An investigation into gamification as a customer engagement experience environment. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(6/7), 533-546. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-01-2015-0045.

Hassan, L., Dias, A., & Hamari, J. (2019). How motivational feedback increases user’s benefits and continued use: A study on gamification, quantified-self and social networking. International Journal of Information Management, 46, 151-162.

Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, USA: Guilford Publications.

Henderson, C. M., Beck, J. T., & Palmatier, R. W. (2011). Review of the theoretical underpinnings of loyalty programs. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21(3), 256-276.

Hinton, S., Wood, L. C., Singh, H., & Reiners, T. (2019). Enterprise gamification systems and employment legislation: a systematic literature review. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 23, 1-24.

Hofacker, C. F., De Ruyter, K., Lurie, N. H., Manchanda, P., & Donaldson, J. (2016). Gamification and mobile marketing effectiveness. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 34, 25-36.

Högberg, J., Ramberg, M. O., Gustafsson, A., & Wästlund, E. (2019). Creating brand engagement through in-store gamified customer experiences. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 122-130.

Hsu, C. L., & Chen, M. C. (2018). How gamification marketing activities motivate desirable consumer behaviors: Focusing on the role of brand love. Computers in Human Behavior, 88, 121-133.

Hsu, C. L., Chen, Y. C., Yang, T. N., & Lin, W. K. (2017). Do website features matter in an online gamification context? Focusing on the mediating roles of user experience and attitude. Telematics and Informatics, 34(4), 196-205.

Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2017). A definition for gamification: anchoring gamification in the service marketing literature. Electronic Markets, 27(1), 21-31.

Hwang, J., & Choi, L. (2020). Having fun while receiving rewards?: Exploration of gamification in loyalty programs for consumer loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 106, 365-376.

Hyken, S. (2017). The best loyalty programs go beyond rewards. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/shephyken/2017/03/25/the-best-loyalty-programs-go-beyond-rewards/# 268709882503.

Ipeirotis, P. G., & Gabrilovich, E. (2014). Quizz: targeted crowdsourcing with a billion (potential) users. In Proceedings of WWW ’14 Seoul, Korea, April 7–11, (pp.143–154). New York, USA: ACM Publications.

Islam, H., Jebarajakirthy, C., & Shankar, A. (2019). An experimental based investigation into the effects of website interactivity on customer behavior in on-line purchase context. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 29(2), 117-140.

Islam, J. U., Shahid, S., Rasool, A., Rahman, Z., Khan, I., & Rather, R. A. (2020). Impact of website attributes on customer engagement in banking: a solicitation of stimulus-organism-response theory. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 38(6), 1279-1303. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-12-2019-0460.

Jacoby, J. (2002). Stimulus‐organism‐response reconsidered: an evolutionary step in modeling (consumer) behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(1), 51-57.

Jebarajakirthy, C., Yadav, R., & Shankar, A. (2020). Insights for luxury retailers to reach customers globally. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 38(7), 797-811.

Jones, B. A., Madden, G. J., & Wengreen, H. J. (2014). The FIT game: Preliminary evaluation of a gamification approach to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in school. Preventive Medicine, 68, 76–79.

Kelley, H. H., & Thibaut, J. W. (1978). Interpersonal relations: A theory of interdependence. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Kim, C., Costello, F. J., & Lee, K. C. (2020a). The Unobserved Heterogeneous Influence of Gamification and Novelty-Seeking Traits on Consumers’ Repurchase Intention in the Omnichannel Retailing. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. doi-10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01664.

Kim, M. J., Lee, C. K., & Jung, T. (2020b). Exploring consumer behavior in virtual reality tourism using an extended stimulus-organism-response model. Journal of Travel Research, 59(1), 69-89.

Kivetz, R., & Simonson, I. (2002). Earning the right to indulge: Effort as a determinant of customer preferences toward frequency program rewards. Journal of Marketing Research, 39(2), 155-170.

Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2014). Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 179-188.

Kopalle, P. K., Sun, Y., Neslin, S. A., Sun, B., & Swaminathan, V. (2012). The joint sales impact of frequency reward and customer tier components of loyalty programs. Marketing Science, 31(2), 216-235.

Kwak, D. H., Ma, X., Polites, G., Srite, M., Hightower, R., & Haseman, W. (2018). Cross-Level Moderation of Team Cohesion in Individuals’ Utilitarian and Hedonic Information Processing: Evidence in the Context of Team-Based Gamified Training. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 20(2). Doi: 10.17705/1jais.00532.

Leclercq, T., Poncin, I., & Hammedi, W. (2017). The engagement process during value co-creation: gamification in new product-development platforms. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 21(4), 454-488.

Loughrey, K., & Broin, D. (2018). Are We Having Fun Yet? Misapplying Motivation to Gamification. In 2018 IEEE Games, Entertainment, Media Conference (GEM), Galway, Ireland, August 15-17, (pp. 1-9).

Lounis, S., Pramatari, K., & Theotokis, A. (2014). Gamification is all about fun: The role of incentive type and community collaboration. In Proceedings of ECIS 2014, Tel Aviv, Israel, June 9-11, 2014, (pp. 1–14).

Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA, USA: The MIT Press.

Mekler, E. D., Brühlmann, F., Opwis, K., & Tuch, A. N. (2013). Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation? An empirical analysis of common gamification elements. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on gameful design, research, and applications, Toronto, Canada, October 2-4,2013, (pp. 66-73),

Melancon, J. P., Noble, S. M., & Noble, C. H. (2011). Managing rewards to enhance relational worth. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(3), 341-362.

Melenhorst, M., Novak, J., Micheel, I., Larson, M., & Boeckle, M. (2015, October). Bridging the utilitarian-hedonic divide in crowdsourcing applications. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Crowdsourcing for Multimedia, Brisbane, Australia, October 15, 2015, (pp. 9-14).

Morford, Z. H., Witts, B. N., Killingsworth, K. J., & Alavosius, M. P. (2014). Gamification: the intersection between behavior analysis and game design technologies. The Behavior Analyst, 37(1), 25-40.

Morschheuser, B., Hassan, L., Werder, K., & Hamari, J. (2018). How to design gamification? A method for engineering gamified software. Information and Software Technology, 95, 219-237.

Müller-Stewens, J., Schlager, T., Häubl, G., & Herrmann, A. (2017). Gamified information presentation and consumer adoption of product innovations. Journal of Marketing, 81(2), 8-24.

Nicholson, S. (2015). A recipe for meaningful gamification. In Gamification in education and business (pp. 1-20). Springer, Cham.

Nunes, J. C., & Drèze, X. (2006). Your loyalty program is betraying you. Harvard Business Review, 84(4), 124.

Nunnally, J. Psychometric Methods. 1978. New York, USA: McGraw Hill.

Oinas-Kukkonen, H. (2013). A Foundation for the Study of Behavior Change Support Systems. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 17(6), 1223–1235.

Oinas-Kukkonen, H., & Harjumaa, M. (2009). Persuasive systems design: Key issues, process model, and system features. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 24(1), 485–500.

Perryer, C., Celestine, N. A., Scott-Ladd, B., & Leighton, C. (2016). Enhancing workplace motivation through gamification: Transferrable lessons from pedagogy. The International Journal of Management Education, 14(3), 327-335.

Putri, M. F., Hidayanto, A. N., Negara, E. S., Budi, N. F. A., Utari, P., & Abidin, Z. (2019). Gratification Sought in Gamification on Mobile Payment. In 2019 3rd International Conference on Informatics and Computational Sciences (ICICoS), Semarang, Indonesia, October 29-30, 2019 (pp. 1-6). IEEE. LOCATION AND DATE MISSING

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation. Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, 1(3), 1-16.

Rodrigues, L. F., Oliveira, A., & Costa, C. J. (2016). Does ease-of-use contribute to the perception of enjoyment? A case of gamification in e-banking. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 114-126.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.

Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30(4), 344–360.

Sailer, M., Hense, J. U., Mayr, S. K., & Mandl, H. (2017). How gamification motivates: An experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 371-380.

Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mandl, J., & Klevers, M. (2014). Psychological perspectives on motivation through gamification. Interaction Design and Architecture Journal, 19, 28-37.

Sandberg, J., & Alvesson, M. (2011). Ways of constructing research questions: gap-spotting or problematization? Organization, 18(1), 23-44.

Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 14-31.

Shankar, A., & Jebarajakirthy, C. (2019). The influence of e-banking service quality on customer loyalty. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 37(5), 1119-1142.

Shankar, A., Jebarajakirthy, C., & Ashaduzzaman, M. (2020). How do electronic word of mouth practices contribute to mobile banking adoption?. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 52, 101920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.101920.

Sharma, I., Jain, K., & Behl, A. (2020). Effect of service transgressions on distant third-party customers: The role of moral identity and moral judgment. Journal of Business Research, 121, 696-712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.02.005.

Sharp, B., & Sharp, A. (1997). Loyalty programs and their impact on repeat-purchase loyalty patterns. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5), 473–486.

Sigala, M., Toni, M., Renzi, M. F., Di Pietro, L., & Mugion, R. G. (2019). Gamification in Airbnb: Benefits and Risks. e-Review of Tourism Research, 16(2/3), 24-32.

Simões, J., Díaz Redondo, R., & Fernández Vilas, A. (2013). A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(2),345–353.

Suh, A., & Wagner, C. (2017). How gamification of an enterprise collaboration system increases knowledge contribution: an affordance approach. Journal of Knowledge Management, 21(2), 416-431.

Terlutter, R., & Capella, M. L. (2013). The gamification of advertising: Analysis and research directions of in-game advertising, advergames, and advertising in social network games. Journal of Advertising, 42(2-3), 95–112.

Tolmie, P., Chamberlain, A., & Benford, S. (2014). Designing for reportability: Sustain-able gamification, public engagement, and promoting environmental debate. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 18(7), 1763–1774.

Triantoro, T., Gopal, R., Benbunan-Fich, R., & Lang, G. (2019). Would you like to play? A comparison of a gamified survey with a traditional online survey method. International Journal of Information Management, 49, 242-252.

Uncles, M. D., Dowling, G. R., & Hammond, K. (2003). Customer loyalty and customer loyalty programs. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 20(4), pp. 294-316.

van der Heijden, H. (2004). User acceptance of hedonic information systems. MIS Quarterly, 28(4), 695–704.

Venkatesh, V. (1999). Creating favorable user perceptions: Exploring the role of intrinsic motivation. MIS Quarterly, 23(2), 239–260.

Venkatesh, V. (2000). Determinants of perceived ease of use: Integrating perceived behavioral control, computer anxiety and enjoyment into the technology acceptance model. Information Systems Research, 11(4), 342–365.

Webster, J., & Martocchio, J. J. (1992). Microcomputer playfulness: Development of a measure with workplace implications. MIS Quarterly, 16(2), 201–226.

Wee, S. C., & Choong, W. W. (2019). Gamification: Predicting the effectiveness of variety game design elements to intrinsically motivate users' energy conservation behaviour. Journal of Environmental Management, 233, 97-106.

Yang, Y., Asaad, Y., & Dwivedi, Y. (2017). Examining the impact of gamification on intention of engagement and brand attitude in the marketing context. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 459-469.

Zichermann, G., & Cunningham, C. (2011). Gamification by design: Implementing game mechanics in web and mobile apps. Sebastopol, CA, USA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Zichermann, G., & Linder, J. (2010). Game-based marketing: inspire customer loyalty through rewards, challenges, and contests. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.




How to Cite

Behl, A., & Pereira, V. (2021). What’s behind a scratch card? Designing a mobile application using gamification to study customer loyalty: An experimental approach. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 25. https://doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v25i0.3203



Research on Information Systems Development