Antecedents of Effective Digital Leadership of Enterprises in Asia Pacific

  • Nanda Kumar Karippur
  • Pushpa Rani Balaramachandran S P Jain School of Global Management
Keywords: Ambidexterity, Digital leadership, Digital transformation, Digital governance, Dynamic capabilities, Transformational leadership

Abstract

Increasing awareness of digital transformation across Asia Pacific is putting a strong spotlight on how enterprises think of leadership and related key practices. The pace of transition to the new digital organisation creates even larger leadership gaps as most organisations have not moved rapidly enough to develop relevant leadership practices. With the support of literature, an analysis of related theories of transformational leadership, ambidexterity and dynamic capabilities are examined and the most suitable leadership attributes and practices for a digital enterprise is proposed. We test the proposed research model via a sample of leaders and senior managers from the Asia Pacific region. The results highlight the significant roles of leadership attributes, strategic priorities, organisational focus areas for exploration and digital governance practices for exploitation, in influencing effective digital leadership. The article reports valuable insights and relevant implications for leaders, enterprises, and researchers.

References

Accenture. (2016). The Ethics of Data Sharing: A guide to best practices and governance [White paper]. Accenture. Retrieved form https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/pdf-35/accenture-the-ethics-of-data-sharing.pdf.

Agarwal, R., & Helfat, C. E. (2009). Strategic renewal of organizations. Organization Science, 20(2), 281-293. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1090.0423

Bahl, M. (2016). The work ahead - The Future of Businesses and Jobs in Asia Pacific’s Digital Economy [White paper]. Cognizant. Retrieved form https://www.cognizant.com/whitepapers/the-work-ahead-the-future-of-business-and-jobs-in-asia-pacifics-digital-economy-codex2255.pdf

Baškarada, S., Watson, J., & Cromarty, J. (2016). Leadership and organizational ambidexterity. Journal of Management Development, 35(6), pp. 778-788.

https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-01-2016-0004

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Collier Macmillan. London, UK.

Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research and Managerial Applications. New York: The Free Press.

Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/135943299398410

Bass, B.M., & Riggio, R.E., (2006). Transformational leadership, 2nd ed. L. Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, N.J. https://doi.org/10.1080/10887150701451312

Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A., & Venkatraman, N. (2013). Digital business strategy: toward a next generation of insights. MIS Quarterly, 471-482.

Bongiorno, G., Rizzo, D., & Vaia, G. (2018). CIOs and the digital transformation: a new leadership role. In CIOs and the Digital Transformation (pp. 1-9). Springer, Cham. https://DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-31026-8_1

Burns, J. M., & Leadership, H. (1978). Row. New York, 280.

Burley, K. (2019, December 2). Emergence of Traditional Leadership Styles. Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/info-8469011-emergence-traditional-leadership-styles.html.

Butler, T., & O’Brien, L. (2019). Understanding RegTech for digital regulatory compliance. In Disrupting Finance (pp. 85-102). Palgrave Pivot, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02330-0_6

Carcary, M., Doherty, E., & Conway, G. (2016, September). A dynamic capability approach to digital transformation: a focus on key foundational themes. In The European Conference on Information Systems Management (p. 20). Academic Conferences International Limited.

Carlson, K. D., & Herdman, A. O. (2012). Understanding the impact of convergent validity on research results. Organizational Research Methods, 15, 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110392383.

Cascio, W. F., & Montealegre, R. (2016). How technology is changing work and organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 349-375. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-041015-062352

Chee, C. W., & Young, H. K. (2020). Procurement: making digital transformation work for you. Retrieved from https://www.de.kearney.com/procurement/article?/a/procurement-riding-the-transformative-digital-wave.

Chen, M. Y. C., Lin, C. Y. Y., Lin, H. E., & McDonough, E. F. (2012). Does transformational leadership facilitate technological innovation? The moderating roles of innovative culture and incentive compensation. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 239-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-012-9285-9

CISCO. (2020). CISCO Annual Internet Report (2018 - 2023). [White paper]. CISCO. Retrieved from https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/executive-perspectives/

annual-internet-report/white-paper-c11-741490.html.

Cortellazzo, L., Bruni, E., & Zampieri, R. (2019). The role of leadership in a digitalized world: a review. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1938. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01938

Cullen, D., Hui, D., & Kittle, G. (2019). Transforming Asia: The search for digital leaders. Heidrick & Struggles. Retrieved from https://www.heidrick.com/Knowledge-Center/Publication/Transforming_Asia_The_search_for_digital_leaders.

Dahlström, P., Desmet, D., & Singer, M. (2017). The seven decisions that matter in a digital transformation: A CEO’s guide to reinvention. Digital McKinsey article (Feb 2017).

Davenport, T., & Mittal, N. (2020). How CEOs Can Lead a Data-Driven Culture. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2020/03/how-ceos-can-lead-a-data-driven-culture.

De la Boutetière, H., Montagner, A., & Reich, A. (2018). Unlocking Success in DigitalTransformations. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/Organization/Our%20Insights/Unlocking%20success%20in%20digital%20transformations/Unlocking-success-in-digital-transformations.ashx.

Della Corte, V., Del Gaudio, G., & Sepe, F. (2019). Leadership in the Digital Realm: What Are the Main Challenges?. In Digital Leadership-A New Leadership Style for the 21st Century. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.89856

Deloitte (2016). Decoding Digital Leadership. Deloitte. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/uk/Documents/public-sector/deloitte-uk-decoding-digital-leadership.pdf.

Deloitte (2017). How do companies prepare for the opportunities and challenges for digitalisation? Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/ch/

Documents/consumer-business/ch-cip-en-swiss-transformation.pdf.

Devos, J., & Van de Ginste, K. (2015). Towards a theoretical foundation of IT governance: the COBIT 5 case. In ECIME (Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 95-103). Academic Publishing Limited.

Diaz-Saenz, H. R. (2011). Transformational leadership. The SAGE handbook of leadership, 5(1), 299-310.

Donahue, C. (2020). How To Keep Pace with Digital Transformation and Avoid Becoming Obsolete. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2020/02/12/how-to-keep-pace-with-digital-transformation-and-avoid-becoming-obsolete/#21b0d7984861.

Dubey, A. (2019). This is what great leadership looks like in the digital age. [online] World Economic Forum. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/04/

leadership-digital-age-leader/.

Dykes, B. (2012). How to create a data-driven dynasty. Adobe. Retrieved from https://smartcomm.net.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/how-to-create-a-data-driven-dynasty.pdf.

El Sawy, O. A., Kræmmergaard, P., Amsinck, H., & Vinther, A. L. (2020). How LEGO Built the Foundations and Enterprise Capabilities for Digital Leadership. Strategic Information Management, 174–201. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429286797-8

Fatima, T., Majeed, M., & Saeed, I. (2017). Does Participative Leadership Promote Innovative Work Behavior: The Moderated Mediation Model. Business & Economic Review, 9(4), 139-156. https://doi.org/10.22547/ber/9.4.7

Fenwick, N., & Schadler, T. (2018). Digital Rewrites the Rules of Business. Forrester, Cambridge, Massachusettes.

Finzi, B., Firth, V., & Lipton, M. (2018). Ambidextrous leadership: Keystone of the undisruptable CEO. Deloitte Insights.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980

García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 1040-1050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.03.005

Geissbauer, R., Vedso, J., & Schrauf, S. (2016). Industry 4.0: Building the Digital Enterprise. PwC. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/industries-4.0/landing-page/industry-4.0-building-your-digital-enterprise-april-2016.pdf.

Gentle, C. & Metselaar, J. (2020). Achieving Ambidextrous Leadership: Driving 'Perform & Transform' Innovation for Step-Changed Business Results. Retrieved from https://cmr.berkeley.edu/2020/04/ambidextrous-leadership/.

Ghosh, B., Burden, A., & Wilson, J. (2019). How to scale innovation and achieve full value with Future Systems. Accenture. Retrieved from https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/

thought-leadership-assets/pdf/accenture-future-systems-report.pdf.

Gottlieb, J., & Willmott, P. (2014). The digital tipping point: McKinsey global survey results. McKinsey & Company, McKinsey Quarterly.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152. https://doi.org/10.2753/mtp1069-6679190202

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2013). Multivariate data analysis: Pearson New International Edition. Pearson Higher Ed.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications, USA.

Harvard Business Review (2014). Delivering on the promise of Digital Transformation. Harvard Business Review Analytic Services Report 2014. Retrieved from https://www.bmcsoftware.sg/content/dam/bmc/migration/pdf/HBR_BMC_Report_Aug2014-Final.pdf.

Harvard Business Review (2017). Operationalizing Digital Transformation: New Insights into Making Digital Work. Harvard Business Review Analytic Services Report 2017. Harvard Business School Publishing. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/resources/pdfs/comm/xl/

HBRASOperationalizingDigitalTransformation.pdf.

Havermans, L. A., Den Hartog, D. N., Keegan, A., & Uhl‐Bien, M. (2015). Exploring the role of leadership in enabling contextual ambidexterity. Human Resource Management, 54(1), 179-200. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21764

Heneghan, L., Snyder, M., & Symons, C. (2017). The route to digital business leadership. KPMG. Retrieved from https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/xx/pdf/2017/09/the-route-to-digital-business-leadership.pdf.

Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Data Systems. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-09-2015-0382

Hess, T., Matt, C., Benlian, A., & Wiesböck, F. (2020). Options for formulating a digital transformation strategy. In Strategic Information Management (pp. 151-173). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429286797-7

Hill, L. A. (2020). Being the Agile Boss. MIT Sloan Management Review, 62(1), 7-10.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60.

Huawei. (2020, August 6). Huawei Empowers Asia Pacific Digital Transformation, Leading to Adaptive Enterprises in Post-COVID World. Retrieved from https://e.huawei.com/sg/news/ebg/2020/asia-pacific-digital-transformation.

Hyek, P., & Nendick, J. (2014). Sustaining digital leadership. Ernst and Young.

International Data Corporation (IDC). (2020, November 4). IDC Predicts 65% of APAC* GDP will be Digitalized Reaching US$ 1.2 Trillion in Spending by 2022. Retrieved from https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prAP46972820.

International Data Group (IDG). (2018). 2018 State of Digital Business Transformation [White paper]. IDG. https://www.idg.com/tools-for-marketers/2018-state-of-digital-business-transformation-white-paper/.

Imran, F., Shahzad, K., Butt, A., & Kantola, J. (2020, July). Leadership Competencies for Digital Transformation: Evidence from Multiple Cases. In International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (pp. 81-87). Springer, Cham.4. http://dx.doi.org/0.1007/978-3-030-50791-6_11

Ittner, C. (2019). How Digital Technology Is Transforming Cost Management. Retrieved from https://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/cost-management-in-the-digital-age/.

Jimenez, D. Z., Lim, V., Cheok, L., & Ng, H. (2018). Unlocking the economic impact of digital transformation in Asia Pacific [White paper]. Microsoft and International Data Corporation (IDC) Asia/Pacific. https://news.microsoft.com/wp-content/uploads/prod/sites/43/2018/11/Unlocking-the-economic-impact-of-digital-transformation.pdf.

Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 765-780. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.765

Kahai, S. S. (2013). Leading in a digital age: What’s different, issues raised, and what we know. Exploring Distance in Leader–Follower Relationships: When Near is Far and Far is Near. New York, Routledge, S, 63-108.

Kane, G. C., Palmer, D., Phillips, A. N., Kiron, D., & Buckley, N. (2015). Strategy, not technology, drives digital transformation. MIT Sloan Management Review and Deloitte University Press, 14(1-25).

Kane, G. C., Palmer, D., Nguyen-Phillips, A., Kiron, D., & Buckley, N. (2017). Achieving digital maturity. MIT Sloan Management Review, 59(1).

Kane, G. C., Phillips, A. N., Copulsky, J., & Andrus, G. (2019). How Digital Leadership Is (n't) Different. MIT Sloan Management Review, 60(3), 34-39.

Karimi, J., & Walter, Z. (2015). The role of dynamic capabilities in responding to digital disruption: A factor-based study of the newspaper industry. Journal of Management Information Systems, 32(1), 39-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2015.1029380

Knight, W. (2020). The 9 dimensions of innovation for digital leaders. Retrieved from https://digileaders.com/the-9-dimensions-of-innovation-for-digital-leaders.

Kohli, R., & Johnson, S. (2011). Digital Transformation in Latecomer Industries: CIO and CEO Leadership Lessons from Encana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. MIS Quarterly Executive, 10(4).

Kassotaki, O. (2019). Ambidextrous leadership in high technology organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 48(2), 37-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2018.10.001

Kreutzer, R. T., Neugebauer, T., & Pattloch, A. (2018). Digital Business Leadership: Digital Transformation, Business Model Innovation, Agile Organization, Change Management (pp. 263). Springer, Berlin.

Kumar, K. N. (2017). Digital Transformation in Asia-Pacific. Cutter Consortium. Retrieved from https://www.cutter.com/article/digital-transformation-asia-pacific-2017-495011.

Larjovuori, R. L., Bordi, L., Mäkiniemi, J. P., & Heikkilä-Tammi, K. (2016). The role of leadership and employee well-being in organizational digitalization. Tiziana Russo-Spenaand Cristina Mele, 1159.

Larjovuori, R. L., Bordi, L., & Heikkilä-Tammi, K. (2018, October). Leadership in the digital business transformation. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Academic Mindtrek Conference (pp. 212-221). https://doi.org/10.1145/3275116.3275122

Li, W., Liu, K., Belitski, M., Ghobadian, A., & O'Regan, N. (2016). e-Leadership through strategic alignment: An empirical study of small-and medium-sized enterprises in the digital age. Journal of Information Technology, 31(2), 185-206. https://doi.org/10.1057/jit.2016.10

Link, J. (2018). Why Organisations Need Digital Leaders with these Five Key Strengths. Forbes Media LLC. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/Forbeshumanresources

council/2018/10/04/why-organizations-need-digital-leaders-with-these-five-key-strengths/#12b873567aee.

Liu, L., Yu, B., & Wu, W. (2019). The Formation and Effects of Exploitative Dynamic Capabilities and Explorative Dynamic Capabilities: An Empirical Study. Sustainability, 11(9), 2581. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092581

London & Partners. (2021, January 14). Global Tech Investors Show Confidence in London. Retrieved from https://media.londonandpartners.com/news/global-tech-investors-show-confidence-in-london.

Lunardi, G. L., Maçada, A. C. G., & Becker, J. L. (2014, January). IT governance effectiveness and its antecedents: An empirical examination in Brazilian firms. In 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 4376-4385). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2014.540

March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71-87.

Matt, C., Hess, T., & Benlian, A. (2015). Digital transformation strategies. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 57(5), 339-343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-015-0401-5

Neubauer, R., Tarling, A., & Wade, M. (2017). Redefining leadership for a digital age. Global Centre for Digital Business Transformation, 1-15.

NSW Treasury. (2019). Sydney Facts. Retrieved from https://invest.nsw.gov.au/why-nsw/sydney-facts.

O Reilly, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2004). The ambidextrous organization. Harvard Business Review, 82(4), 74-83.

O’Reilly III, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2008). Ambidexterity as a dynamic capability: Resolving the innovator's dilemma. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 185-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2008.06.002

O'Reilly III, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2011). Organizational ambidexterity in action: How managers explore and exploit. California Management Review, 53(4), 5-22. https://doi.org/10.1525/cmr.2011.53.4.5

O'Reilly III, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. (2013). Organizational ambidexterity: Past, present, and future. Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(4), 324-338. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0025

Oberer, B., & Erkollar, A. (2018). Leadership 4.0: Digital Leaders in the Age of Industry 4.0. International Journal of Organizational Leadership. https://doi.org/10.33844/ijol.2018.

Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival Manual 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw Hill.

Pearce, D. L. (2013). Implementing Innovation with Ambidextrous Leadership in Small and Medium Enterprises. Fisher Digital Publication, New York.

Popadiuk, S., Luz, A. R. S., & Kretschmer, C. (2018). Dynamic capabilities and ambidexterity: how are these concepts related?. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 22(5), 639-660. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac2018180135

Raelin, J. A. (Ed.). (2016). Leadership-as-practice: Theory and application. Routledge. New York and London

Rizvi, M. (2017, March 22). Wheel of Fortune favours Dubai. Khaleejtimes. Retrieved from https://www.khaleejtimes.com/business/corporate/wheel-of-fortune-favours-dubai.

Rogers, D. L. (2016). The digital transformation playbook: Rethink your business for the digital age. Columbia University Press, New York.

Roldán, J. L., & Sánchez-Franco, M. J. (2012). Variance-based structural equation modeling: Guidelines for using partial least squares in information systems research. In Research Methodologies, Innovations and Philosophies in Software Systems Engineering and Information Systems (pp. 193-221). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-0179-6.ch010

Sainger, G. (2018). Leadership in Digital Age: A Study on the Role of Leader in this Era of Digital Transformation. International Journal on Leadership, 6(1), 1.

Sarstedt, M., Wilczynski, P., & Melewar, T. C. (2013). Measuring reputation in global markets—A comparison of reputation measures’ convergent and criterion validities. Journal of World Business, 48(3), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2012.07.017

Schadler, T., Fenwick, N., Gill, M., Cazalet, A., & Hartig, K (2017). The Digital Business Imperative. Forrester. Retrieved from https://www.forrester.com/report/

The+Digital+Business+Imperative/-/E-RES115784.

Singapore Economic Development Board. (2020, August 19). Ride the Wave of Asian Growth. Retrieved from https://www.edb.gov.sg/en/our-industries/industries-and-key-activities/headquarters.html.

Solis, B., and Syzmanski, J., (2016). The Race Against Digital Darwinism: Six Stages of Digital Transformation. Altimeter Group.

Sow, M., & Aborbie, S. (2018). Impact of leadership on digital transformation. Business and Economic Research, 8(3), 139-148. https://doi.org/10.5296/ber.v8i3.13368

Statista Research Department. (2021, March 29). APAC: Mobile internet user penetration 2018-2025. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/201232/forecast-of-mobile-internet-penetration-in-asia-pacific/.

Steele, C., Allen, L., & Watkins, A. (2019). The ethical use of customer data in a digital economy. KPMG. Retrieved from https://home.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/uk/pdf/2019/04/ethical-use-of-customer-data.pdf.

Svahn, F., Mathiassen, L., & Lindgren, R. (2017). Embracing Digital Innovation in Incumbent Firms: How Volvo Cars Managed Competing Concerns. MIS Quarterly, 41(1). https://doi.org/10.25300/misq/2017/41.1.12

Swift, M., & Lange, D. (2018). Digital Leadership in Asia Pacific. Korn Ferry Institute. Retrieved from https://focus.kornferry.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Korn-Ferry-Digital-leadership-in-Asia-Pacific.pdf.

Tan, A. (2020). IT Priorities: 2020: APAC. Tech Target. Retrieved from https://www.computerweekly.com/ehandbook/IT-Priorities-2020-APAC.

Takle, J. (2018). Ambidextrous Leadership - transformational skills for a digital age. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/ambidextrous-leadership-transforming-banks-digital-age-jeremy-takle.

Tannou, M., & Westerman, G. (2012). Governance: a central component of successful digital transformation. MIT Center for Digital Business and Capgemini Consulting, London.

Tardieu, H., Daly, D., Esteban-Lauzán, J., Hall, J., & Miller, G. (2020). Leadership—What Is Required of Leaders and Leadership to Achieve Digital Success?. In Deliberately Digital (pp. 95-105). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37955-1_11

Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: the nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), 1319-1350. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.640

Teece, D. J. (2009). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management: Organizing for innovation and growth. Oxford University Press on Demand, New York.

Teece, D. J. (2014). The foundations of enterprise performance: Dynamic and ordinary capabilities in an (economic) theory of firms. Academy of management perspectives, 28(4), 328-352. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2013.0116

Teece, D. J., & Linden, G. (2017). Business models, value capture, and the digital enterprise. Journal of Organization Design, 6(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.640

Tong, J. (2017). Key components of digital governance in organisations. Retrieved from https://www.joshtong.io/blog/2017/11/14/key-components-of-digital-governance-in-organizations.

Tushman, M. L., & O’Reilly, C. A. (1996). Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change. California Management Review, 38(4), 8–29. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165852https://doi.org/10.2307/41165852

Valentine, E., & Stewart, G. (2015, January). Enterprise business technology governance: Three competencies to build board digital leadership capability. In 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 4513-4522). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/hicss.2015.539

Vey, K., Fandel-Meyer, T., Zipp, J. S., & Schneider, C. (2017). Learning & development in times of digital transformation: Facilitating a culture of change and innovation. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC), 10(1), 22-32. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijac.v10i1.6334

Vial, G. (2019). Understanding digital transformation: A review and a research agenda. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 28(2), 118-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsis.2019.01.003

Warner, K. S., & Wäger, M. (2019). Building dynamic capabilities for digital transformation: An ongoing process of strategic renewal. Long Range Planning, 52(3), 326-349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2018.12.001

Welchman, L. (2015). Managing chaos: Digital governance by design. Rosenfeld Media.

Werts, C. E., Rock, D. R., Linn, R. L., & Joreskog, K. G. (1978). A general method of estimating the reliability of a composite. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38(4), 933–938. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447803800412

Westerman, G., Bonnet, D., & McAfee, A. (2014a). Leading digital: Turning technology into business transformation. Harvard Business Press, USA.

Westerman, G., Bonnet, D., & McAfee, A. (2014b). The nine elements of digital transformation. MIT Sloan Management Review, 55(3), 1-6.

World Economic Forum (2018). The Digital Enterprise: Moving from experimentation to transformation. World Economic Forum in collaboration with Bain and Company. Retrieved from: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/Media/47538_Digital%20Enterprise_

Moving_Experimentation_Transformation_report_2018%20-%20final%20(2).pdf

Wrede, M., Velamuri, V. K., & Dauth, T. (2020). Top managers in the digital age: Exploring the role and practices of top managers in firms' digital transformation. Managerial and Decision Economics. https://doi.org/10.1002/mde.3202

Yokoi, T., Shan, J., Wade, M., & Macaulay, J. (2019). Digital Vortex 2019: Continuous and Connected Change.

Zeike, S., Bradbury, K., Lindert, L., & Pfaff, H. (2019). Digital leadership skills and associations with psychological well-being. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(14), 2628. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142628

Zhang, X. A., Cao, Q., & Tjosvold, D. (2011). Linking transformational leadership and team performance: A conflict management approach. Journal of Management Studies, 48(7), 1586-1611. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00974.x

Published
2022-02-27
How to Cite
Karippur, N. K., & Balaramachandran, P. R. (2022). Antecedents of Effective Digital Leadership of Enterprises in Asia Pacific. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 26. https://doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v26i0.2525
Section
Research Articles