Environmental Sustainability through Green Business Process Management

Keywords: environmental sustainability, Green BPM, environmental performance indicators (EPIs)


The climate change phenomenon, directly or indirectly, affects industries and nations. Governments and organizations have been challenged to identify their environmental impacts to address environmental sustainability issues. A promising, yet under-studied in this context, theme of information systems (IS) literature that has the potential to help with identifying, quantifying and managing environmental impacts is business process management (BPM). With its focus on continual process performance improvement, the capacity of BPM to contribute to Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs to be further explored. Yet, contributions from the BPM research community and the impact of these contributions appear to be fragmented. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review to explore BPM contributions to ES, with a focus on environmental performance indicators (EPIs) as well as relevant organizational factors related to ES and BPM. In doing so, we identify and explore ‘Green BPM’ contributions and suggest ways to advance BPM research in the context of ES.

Author Biographies

Shahrzad Roohy Gohar, The University of Queensland
Associate Lecturer and PhD Student, BIS Discipline, UQ Business School
Marta Indulska, The University of Queensland
Professor, BIS Discipline Leader, UQ Business School


Adger, W. N., Arnell, N. W., & Tompkins, E. L. (2005). Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global environmental change, 15(2), 77-86.

Applegate, L. M., & King, J. L. (1999). Rigor and relevance: careers on the line. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 23, 17-18.

Ardagna, D., Cappiello, C., Lovera, M., Pernici, B., & Tanelli, M. (2008). Active energy-aware management of business-process based applications: Springer.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council State of the Environment Reporting Task Force. (2000). Core environmental indicators for reporting on the state of the environment. Retrieved from www.environment.gov.au/system/files/pages/-a94a73f8-79db-4347-8a7a- f03ecdc48074/files/core-indicators.pdf

Australian Industry Group. (2007). Environmental Sustainability and Industry: Road to a sustainable future - Findings of the National Survey on Environmental Sustainable Practices. Sustainability Victoria, Melbourne

Bandara, W., Furtmueller, E., Gorbacheva, E., Miskon, S., & Beekhuyzen, J. (2015). Achieving Rigour in Literature Reviews: Insights from Qualitative Data Analysis and Tool-support. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 37(1), 8.

Bansal, P., & Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: A model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of management journal, 43(4), 717-736.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.

Blohm, I., & Leimeister, J. M. (2013). Gamification: Design of IT-Based Enhancing Services for Motivational Support and Behavioral Change. Business & Information Systems Engineering, Volume 5(4), 275-278. doi:10.1007/s12599-013-0273-5

Bostrom, R. P., & Heinen, J. S. (1977). MIS problems and failures: a socio-technical perspective, part II: the application of socio-technical theory. MIS Quarterly, 11-28.

British Standards Institution. (1994). Specification for Environmental Management Systems. Retrieved from https://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000000322818

Brooks, S., Wang, X., & Sarker, S. (2012). Unpacking Green IS: A Review of the Existing Literature and Directions for the Future. In J. vom Brocke, S. Seidel, & J. Recker (Eds.), Green Business Process Management (pp. 15-37): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Brown, B., Hanson, M., Liverman, D., & Merideth, R., Jr. (1987). Global sustainability: Toward definition. Environmental Management, 11(6), 713-719. doi:10.1007/BF01867238

Cappiello, C., Plebani, P., & Vitali, M. (2013). Energy-aware process design optimization. Proceeding of the 2013 International Conference on Cloud and Green Computing (CGC), (pp. 451-458).

Chen, A. J., Watson, R. T., Boudreau, M.-C., & Karahanna, E. (2011). An institutional perspective on the adoption of Green IS & IT. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 17(1)

Cheong, C., Cheong, F., & Filippou, J. (2013). Using Design Science Research to Incorporate Gamification into Learning Activities. Proceedings of the 2013 Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Jeju Island, Korea (pp. 156-171)

Christmann, P. (2000). Effects of “best practices” of environmental management on cost advantage: The role of complementary assets. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 663-680.

Cleven, A., Winter, R., & Wortmann, F. (2012). Managing Process Performance to Enable Corporate Sustainability: A Capability Maturity Model. In J. vom Brocke, S. Seidel, & J. Recker (Eds.), Green Business Process Management (pp. 111-129): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Commonwealth of Australia. (2010). Australian Government ICT sustainability plan 2010-2015 (978-1921733154). Retrieved from Canberra, A.C.T. Retrieved from https://dga.or.th/upload/download/file_bd887ff18f65ded54fe5cf7f38858446.pdf

Couckuyt, D. (2017). An Overview of Challenges and Research Avenues for Green Business Process Management. Proceedings of the OTM Confederated International Conferences" On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems". (pp. 270-279). Springer, Cham.

Couckuyt, D., & Van Looy, A. (2019). Green BPM as a Business-Oriented Discipline: A Systematic Mapping Study and Research Agenda. Sustainability, 11(15), 4200.

Dada, A., Stanoevska-Slabeva, K., & Gómez, J. M. (2013). Organizations' Environmental Performance Indicators: Springer.

de Bruin, T., & Rosemann, M. (2007). Using the Delphi technique to identify BPM capability areas. Proceedings of the 18th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia, pp. 643–653 (2007)

de Burgos Jimenez, J., & Céspedes Lorente, J. J. (2001). Environmental performance as an operations objective. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(12), 1553-1572.

Degirmenci, K., & Recker, J. (2018). Creating Environmental Sensemaking through Green IS: An Experimental Study on Eco-Nudging Paper Printing Behavior. Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth Americas Conference on Information Systems, New Orleans. (pp. 1- 10)

Dehghanian, F., & Mansour, S. (2009). Designing sustainable recovery network of end-of-life products using genetic algorithm. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 53(10), 559-570.

Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O'Hara, K., & Dixon, D. (2011). Gamification. using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. Proceedings of the CHI'11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp. 2425-2428

DeToro, I., & McCabe, T. (1997). How to stay flexible and elude fads. Quality Progress, 30(3), 55.

Dumas, M., La Rosa, M., Mendling, J., & Reijers, H. A. (2013). Introduction to Business Process Management. In Fundamentals of Business Process Management (pp. 1-31). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Elkington, J. (1998). Partnerships from cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st‐century business. Environmental quality management, 8(1), 37-51.

Epstein, M. J., & Roy, M.-J. (2001). Sustainability in action: Identifying and measuring the key performance drivers. Long Range Planning, 34(5), 585-604.

Finnveden, G., Hauschild, M. Z., Ekvall, T., Guinée, J., Heijungs, R., Hellweg, S., . . . Suh, S. (2009). Recent developments in Life Cycle Assessment. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(1), 1-21. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.06.018

Gao, S., & Low, S. (2014). The Toyota Way. In Lean Construction Management (pp. 49-100): Springer Singapore.

Gholami, R., Watson, R. T., Molla, A., Hasan, H., & Bjørn-Andersen, N. (2016). Information systems solutions for environmental sustainability: How can we do more? Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(8), 521.

Ghose, A., Hoesch-Klohe, K., Hinsche, L., & Le, L.-S. (2010). Green business process management: A research agenda. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 16(2).

González‐Benito, J., & González‐Benito, Ó. (2006). A review of determinant factors of environmental proactivity. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15(2), 87-102.

Goodland, R. (1995). The Concept of Environmental Sustainability. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26, 1-24. doi:10.2307/2097196

Gregor, S. (2006). The nature of theory in information systems. MIS Quarterly, 611-642.

Guinée, J. (2001). Handbook on life cycle assessment—operational guide to the ISO standards. The international journal of life cycle assessment, 6(5), 255-255.

Hall, C. M. (2013). Framing behavioural approaches to understanding and governing sustainable tourism consumption: Beyond neoliberalism,“nudging” and “green growth”? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(7), 1091-1109.

Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2013). Social Motivations To Use Gamification: An Empirical Study Of Gamifying Exercise. Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). Utrecht, The Netherlands, June 5–8, 2013.

Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does gamification work?--a literature review of empirical studies on gamification. Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), USA, January 6–9, 2014.

Hammer, M. (2010). What is business process management? In J. v. B. M. Rosemann (Ed.), Handbook on business process management: Introduction, methods and information system (Vol. 1, pp. 3-16). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Hammer, M., & Champy, J. (1993). Reengineering the corporation: A manifesto for business revolution. Business Horizons, 36(5), 90-91.

Hammond, A., Adriaanse, A., Rodenburg, E., Bryant, D., & Woodward, R. (1995). Environmental indicators: a systematic approach to measuring and reporting on environmental policy performance in the context of sustainable development. Retrieved from World Resources Institute: http://pdf.wri.org/environmentalindicators_bw.pdf

Harmon, P. (2010). The scope and evolution of business process management. In Handbook on Business Process Management 1 (pp. 37-81): Springer.

Harris, L. C., & Crane, A. (2002). The greening of organizational culture: Management views on the depth, degree and diffusion of change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15(3), 214-234.

Harvey, F. (2015). Paris climate change agreement: the world’s greatest diplomatic success. The Guardian, 14, 15.

Hernández González, A., Calero, C., Pérez Parra, D., & Mancebo, J. (2019). Approaching Green BPM characterisation. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 31(2), e2145.

Hoesch-Klohe, K., & Ghose, A. (2010). Carbon-Aware Business Process Design in Abnoba. In P. Maglio, M. Weske, J. Yang, & M. Fantinato (Eds.), Service-Oriented Computing (Vol. 6470, pp. 551-556): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Hoesch-Klohe, K., & Ghose, A. (2012). Environmentally Aware Business Process Improvement in the Enterprise Context. Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, 265.

Hoesch-Klohe, K., Ghose, A., & Lê, L.-S. (2010). Towards green business process management. Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (pp. 386-393). IEEE.

Houy, C., Reiter, M., Fettke, P., & Loos, P. (2011). Towards Green BPM–Sustainability and resource efficiency through business process management. Proceedings of the business process management workshops 2010, LNBIP 66, Hoboken, NJ, USA (pp. 501-510).

Houy, C., Reiter, M., Fettke, P., Loos, P., Hoesch-Klohe, K., & Ghose, A. (2012). Advancing Business Process Technology for Humanity: Opportunities and Challenges of Green BPM for Sustainable Business Activities. In J. vom Brocke, S. Seidel, & J. Recker (Eds.), Green Business Process Management (pp. 75-92): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Hung, R. Y.-Y. (2006). Business process management as competitive advantage: a review and empirical study. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17(1), 21-40. doi:10.1080/14783360500249836

International Organisation for Standardization, I. (2013). The ISO Survey. Retrieved from https://www.iso.org/news/2014/09/Ref1893.html

IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (9291691437). Retrieved from https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_FINAL_full.pdf

Jackson, T. (2005). Motivating sustainable consumption. Sustainable Development Research Network, 29, 30.

Jakobi, T., Castelli, N., Nolte, A., Schönau, N., & Stevens, G. (2016). Towards Collaborative Green Business Process Management as a Conceptual Framework. In Advances and New Trends in Environmental and Energy Informatics (pp. 275-293): Springer.

Jamous, N., & Müller, K. (2013). Environmental Performance Indicators. In A. Dada, K. Stanoevska, & J. M. Gómez (Eds.), Organizations’ Environmental Performance Indicators (pp. 3-18): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Jasch, C. (2000). Environmental performance evaluation and indicators. Journal of Cleaner Production, 8(1), 79-88. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-6526(99)00235-8

Kankanhalli, A., Taher, M., Cavusoglu, H., & Kim, S. H. (2012). Gamification: A new paradigm for online user engagement. Proceedings of the Thirty Third International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Orlando, FL, December 16–19, 2012, pp. 1–10.

Kitchenham, B., Brereton, O. P., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Bailey, J., & Linkman, S. (2009). Systematic literature reviews in software engineering–a systematic literature review. Information and software technology, 51(1), 7-15.

Kohlbacher, M., & Reijers, H. A. (2013). The effects of process-oriented organizational design on firm performance. Business Process Management Journal, 19(2), 245-262.

Kuppusamy, M., & Gharleghi, B. (2015). Green Business Process Management in manufacturing firms: Examining the role of upstream and downstream suppliers International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research IJABER, 13(1), 259-271.

Lacy, P., Cooper, T., Hayward, R., & Neuberger, L. (2010). A new era of sustainability: United Nations Global Compact-Accenture CEO Study Retrieved from https://www.comunicarseweb.com/sites/default/files/biblioteca/pdf/1321968280_33434737-New-Era-Sustainabiltiy-Accenture-UNGC-Study-2010.pdf

Lane, M. S., Kolbe, L., & Zarnekow, R. (2011). Editorial for special issue of AJIS on Green IT/IS (Sustainable computing). Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 17(1). doi:10.3127/ajis.v17i1.666

Linnenluecke, M. K., & Griffiths, A. (2010). Corporate sustainability and organizational culture. Journal of World Business, 45(4), 357-366. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2009.08.006

Lintukangas, K., Kähkönen, A.-K., & Ritala, P. (2016). Supply risks as drivers of green supply management adoption. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 1901-1909.

Longoni, A., & Cagliano, R. (2015). Environmental and social sustainability priorities: Their integration in operations strategies. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 35(2), 216-245.

Lübbecke, P., Fettke, P., & Loos, P. (2016a). Sustainability Patterns for the Improvement of IT-Related Business Processes with Regard to Ecological Goals. In BPM Workshops (281), M. Dumas and M. Fantinato (eds.), Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 428–439.

Lübbecke, P., Fettke, P., & Loos, P. (2016b). Towards ecological workflow patterns as an instrument to optimize business processes with respect to ecological goals. Proceedings of the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 1049-1058.

Lübbecke, P., Fettke, P., & Loos, P. (2017). Towards Guidelines of Modeling for Ecology-Aware Process Design. Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Process Management. BPM Workshops, Vol. 308, Springer, Cham, pp. 510-519

Lübbecke, P., Goswami, A., & Fettke, P. (2018, 11-14 July 2018). A Method for Ecological Process Optimization Based on Compliance Checking. Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 20th Conference on Business Informatics (CBI) (Vol. 1, pp. 119-128). IEEE.

Maciel, J. C. (2017). The Core Capabilities of Green Business Process Management–A Literature Review. Proceedings of the 13th Internationalen Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI 2017), St. Gallen, S. 1526-1537.

Melnyk, S. A., Sroufe, R. P., & Calantone, R. (2003). Assessing the impact of environmental management systems on corporate and environmental performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21(3), 329-351.

Morgan, J., Dagnet, Y., & Tirpak, D. (2014). Elements and ideas for the 2015 Paris agreement. Washington, DC: Agreement for Climate Transformation.

National Sustainability Council. (2013). Sustainable Australia Report. Retrieved from http://base.socioeco.org/docs/sustainable-report-full.pdf

Nerlich, B., Koteyko, N., & Brown, B. (2010). Theory and language of climate change communication. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(1), 97-110.

Nowak, A., Binz, T., Fehling, C., Kopp, O., Leymann, F., & Wagner, S. (2012). Pattern-driven green adaptation of process-based applications and their runtime infrastructure. Computing, 94(6), 463-487.

Nowak, A., & Leymann, F. (2013). Green Business Process Patterns--Part II. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 6th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (pp. 168-173).

Nowak, A., Leymann, F., & Mietzner, R. (2011a). Towards green business process reengineering. In Service-Oriented Computing (pp. 187-192): Springer.

Nowak, A., Leymann, F., Schleicher, D., Schumm, D., & Wagner, S. (2011b). Green business process patterns. Proceedings of the 18th conference on pattern languages of programs (pp. 1-10).

Nowak, A., Leymann, F., & Schumm, D. (2011c). The differences and commonalities between green and conventional business process management. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE 9th International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing (pp. 569-576). IEEE.

Nowak, A., Leymann, F., Schumm, D., & Wetzstein, B. (2011). An architecture and methodology for a four-phased approach to green business process reengineering. In Information and Communication on Technology for the Fight against Global Warming (pp. 150-164): Springer.

Opitz, N., Krüp, H., & Kolbe, L. M. (2014a). Environmentally Sustainable Business Process Management–Developing a Green BPM readiness model. Proceedings of the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), Chengdu, China pp. 12.

Opitz, N., Krüp, H., & Kolbe, L. M. (2014b). Green Business Process Management--A Definition and Research Framework. Proceedings of the 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 3808-3817).

Parmenter, D. (2010). Key performance indicators (KPI): developing, implementing, and using winning KPIs: John Wiley & Sons.

Pernici, B., Ardagna, D., & Cappiello, C. (2008). Business process design: Towards service-based green information systems. In E-Government Ict Professionalism and Competences Service Science (pp. 195-203): Springer.

Phan, T. N., & Baird, K. (2015). The comprehensiveness of environmental management systems: The influence of institutional pressures and the impact on environmental performance. Journal of Environmental Management, 160(Supplement C), 45-56. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.06.006.

Porter, M. E. (2008). Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance: Simon and Schuster.

Porter, M. E., & Van der Linde, C. (1995). Toward a new conception of the environment-competitiveness relationship. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(4), 97-118.

Pritchard, J.-P., & Armistead, C. (1999). Business process management-lessons from European business. Business Process Management Journal, 5(1), 10-35.

Qin, W., & Wang, Q. (2007). Modeling and control design for performance management of web servers via an LPV approach. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 15(2), 259-275.

Rajeev, A., Pati, R. K., Padhi, S. S., & Govindan, K. (2017). Evolution of sustainability in supply chain management: A literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162(Supplement C), 299-314. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.05.026

Recker, J., Rosemann, M., & Gohar, E. R. (2011). Measuring the carbon footprint of business processes. In Business Process Management Workshops, Springer Berlin Heidelberg (2011), pp. 511-520

Recker, J., Rosemann, M., Hjalmarsson, A., & Lind, M. (2012). Modeling and Analyzing the Carbon Footprint of Business Processes. In J. vom Brocke, S. Seidel, & J. Recker (Eds.), Green Business Process Management (pp. 93-109): Springer.

Rehan, S., Bandara, W., Erica, F., & Glenn, S. (2018). Getting it right! Critical Success Factors of BPM in the Public Sector: A Systematic Literature Review. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 22(0). doi:10.3127/ajis.v22i0.1265

Reiter, M., Fettke, P., & Loos, P. (2014). Towards Green Business Process Management: Concept and Implementation of an Artifact to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Business Processes. Paper presented at Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), 2014

Rogelj, J., den Elzen, M., Höhne, N., Fransen, T., Fekete, H., Winkler, H., . . . Meinshausen, M. (2016). Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C. Nature, 534(7609), 631-639. doi:10.1038/nature18307

Roohy Gohar, S., & Indulska, M. (2015). Business process management: saving the planet? Proceedings of the Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS). Adelaide, Australia, 30 November–4 December 2015; pp. 1–14.

Rosemann, M., & Vessey, I. (2008). Toward improving the relevance of information systems research to practice: the role of applicability checks. MIS Quarterly, 1-22.

Rosemann, M., & vom Brocke, J. (2010). The six core elements of business process management. In Handbook on Business Process Management 1 (pp. 107-122): Springer.

Rosemann, M., & vom Brocke, J. (2015). The Six Core Elements of Business Process Management. In J. vom Brocke & M. Rosemann (Eds.), Handbook on Business Process Management 1 (pp. 105-122): Springer.

Sanders Jones, J. L., & Linderman, K. (2014). Process management, innovation and efficiency performance: The moderating effect of competitive intensity. Business Process Management Journal, 20(2), 335-358.

Savitz, A. (2012). The triple bottom line: How today's best-run companies are achieving economic, social and environmental success--and how you can too: John Wiley & Sons.

Schlagenhaufer, C., & Amberg, M. (2015). A Descriptive Literature Review and Classification Framework for Gamification in Information Systems. Paper presented at the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Münster, Germany.

Schmidheiny, S. (1992). Changing course: A global business perspective on development and the environment (Vol. 1): MIT press.

Schoormann, T., Behrens, D., & Knackstedt, R. (2017). Sustainability in Business Process Models: A Taxonomy-Driven Approach to Synthesize Knowledge and Structure the Field.

Seidel, S., & Recker, J. (2012). Implementing green business processes: the importance of functional affordances of information systems. Paper presented at the ACIS 2012: Location, location, location: Proceedings of the 23rd Australasian Conference on Information Systems 2012.

Seidel, S., Recker, J., & Brocke, J. (2012). Green Business Process Management. In J. vom Brocke, S. Seidel, & J. Recker (Eds.), Green Business Process Management (pp. 3-13): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Seidel, S., Recker, J. C., Pimmer, C., & vom Brocke, J. (2010). Enablers and barriers to the organizational adoption of sustainable business practices. Paper presented at the Proceeding of the 16th Americas conference on information systems: sustainable IT collaboration around the globe.

Seidel, S., vom Brocke, J., & Recker, J. C. (2011). Call for action: investigating the role of business process management in green IS. Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems, 11(4).

Sharma, S. (2000). Managerial interpretations and organizational context as predictors of corporate choice of environmental strategy. Academy of Management journal, 43(4), 681-697.

Stern, P. C., Dietz, T., Abel, T., Guagnano, G. A., & Kalof, L. (1999). A value-belief-norm theory of support for social movements: The case of environmentalism. Human ecology review, 81-97.

Stolze, C., Semmler, G., & Thomas, O. (2012). Sustainability in Business Process Management Research–a Literature Review. Paper presented at the AMCIS 2012, Seattle.

Sullivan, R., & Wyndham, H. (2001). Effective environmental management. Principles and Case Studies Allen and Unwin Sydney, Australia.

Thies, H., Dada, A., & Stanoevska-Slabeva, K. (2012). The Potential of a Network-Centric Solution for Sustainability in Business Processes. In Green Business Process Management (pp. 181-201): Springer.

Tinsley, S., & Pillai, I. (2006). Environmental systems management: Understanding organisational drivers and barriers. In: Earthscan: London.

Triantaphyllou, E. (2000). Multi-criteria decision making methods. In Multi-criteria decision making methods: A comparative study (pp. 5-21): Springer.

United Nations. (2016). The Sustainable Development Agenda. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/development-agenda.

United Nations Environment Programme. (2014). UNEP 2014 Annual Report ( DCP/1884/NA). Retrieved from http://apps.unep.org/publications/pmtdocuments/-UNEP_2014_Annual_Report-2015UNEP_Annual_Report_2014_Production_LQ.pdf.pdf

Van Der Aalst, W. M. (2004). Business process management demystified: A tutorial on models, systems and standards for workflow management. In Lectures on concurrency and Petri nets (pp. 1-65): Springer.

vom Brocke, J., & Sinnl, T. (2011). Culture in business process management: a literature review. Business Process Management Journal, 17(2), 357-378.

Wabwoba, M. F., Wanyembi, G. W., Omuterema, S., & Omieno, M. K. K. (2013). Green ICT Readiness Model for Developing Economies: Case of Kenya. International Journal.

Wathern, P. (2013). Environmental impact assessment: theory and practice: Routledge.

World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on the Environment and Development(WCED) [Bruntlandt Report]. General Assembly, United Nations, Forty-second Session, Supplement No. 25, A/42/25. Also published as Our Common Future. 1987. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: Writing a literature review. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 26(2), 3.

Weske, M. (2012). Business process management: concepts, languages, architectures: Springer Science & Business Media.

Weske, M., van der Aalst, W. M., & Verbeek, H. (2004). Advances in business process management. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 50(1), 1-8.

Wesumperuma, A., Ginige, A., Ginige, J., & Hol, A. (2013). Green activity based management (ABM) for organisations. Proceedings of the 24th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS). RMIT University; 2013; pp. 1‐ 11.

Wesumperuma, A., Ginige, J. A., Ginige, A., & Hol, A. (2011). A Framework for Multi-dimensional Business Process Optimization for GHG Emission Mitigation. Proceedings of the 22nd Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS), Sydney, Australia; December 2011

Wesumperuma, A. E. (2015). Multi-dimensional business process optimisation for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission management. University of Western Sydney, Australia.

Wetzstein, B., Ma, Z., & Leymann, F. (2008). Towards measuring key performance indicators of semantic business processes. Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Information Systems (pp. 227-238). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Whitelaw, K. (2004). ISO 14001 environmental systems handbook: Routledge.

Young, C. W., & Rikhardsson, P. M. (1996). Environmental performance indicators for business. Eco‐Management and Auditing, 3(3), 113-125.

How to Cite
Roohy Gohar, S., & Indulska, M. (2020). Environmental Sustainability through Green Business Process Management. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 24. https://doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v24i0.2057
Research Articles