AJIS Section Release: Research on Health Information Systems

De Silva, D., Burstein, F., & Vogel, D. (2017). Editorial - Participatory Health Information Systems: Theory and Applications. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1523

Schwartz, D., Bellou, A., Garcia-Castrillo, L., Muraro, A., & Papadopoulos, N. (2017). Exploring mHealth Participation for Emergency Response Communities. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1378

Abstract
We explore the challenges of participation by members of emergency response communities who share a similar condition and treatment, and are called upon to participate in emergency events experienced by fellow members. Smartphones and location-based social networking technologies present an opportunity to re-engineer certain aspects of emergency medical response. Life-saving prescription medication extended in an emergency by one individual to another occurs on a micro level, anecdotally documented. We illustrate the issues and our approach through the example of an app to support patients prone to anaphylaxis and prescribed to carry epinephrine auto-injectors. We address unique participation challenges in an mHealth environment in which interventions are primarily short-term interactions which require clear and precise decision-making and constant tracking of potential participants in responding to an emergency medical event. The conflicting effects of diffused responsibility and shared identity are identified as key factors in modeling participation.

Hacker, J., Wickramasinghe, N., & Durst, C. (2017). Can Health 2.0 Address Critical Healthcare Challenges? Insights from the Case of How Online Social Networks Can Assist in Combatting the Obesity Epidemic. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1357

Abstract
One of the serious concerns in healthcare in this 21st century is obesity. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, social networks have been identified as one of the most important dimensions of people's social environment that may influence the adoption of many behaviours, including health-promoting behaviours. In this article, we examine the possibility of harnessing the appeal of online social networks to address the obesity epidemic currently plaguing society. Specifically, a design science research methodology is adopted to design, implement and test the Health 2.0 application called “Calorie Cruncher”. The application is designed specifically to explore the influence of online social networks on individual’s health-related behaviour. In this regard, pilot data collected based on qualitative interviews indicate that online social networks may influence health-related behaviours in several ways. Firstly, they can influence people’s norms and value system that have an impact on their health-related behaviours. Secondly, social control and pressure of social connections may also shape health-related behaviours, and operate implicitly when people make food selection decisions. Thirdly, social relationships may provide emotional support. Our study has implications for research and practice. From a theoretical perspective, the article inductively identifies three factors that influence specific types of health outcomes in the context of obesity. From a practical perspective, the study underscores the benefits of adopting a design science methodology to design and implement a technology solution for a healthcare issue as well as the key role for online social media to assist with health and wellness management and maintenance.
 
Day, K., Humphrey, G., & Cockroft, S. (2017). How do the design features of health hackathons contribute to participatory medicine?.Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1383

Abstract
The Hackathon concept is attracting interest as a vehicle for participatory development in both Health and Information systems. Publically available datasets, cloud based data storage, and increasingly sophisticated analytical methods, combined with user friendly development tools for mobile devices are inspiring innovation in the participatory medicine space. This has the potential to disrupt traditional methods and deliver solutions more rapidly, and in a form more likely to meet requirements. In health applications this involves putting the patient and their supports at the centre of design. This work contributes to solving the challenges involved in bringing a diverse cohort of designers, developers, problem owners, healthcare providers, patients, and citizens together to solve user-driven self-care problems using technology. We use a descriptive case study approach focussing on two weekend-long hackathons dubbed “Health Hackathon: Solving Self-care”. We gather thick data from multiple sources according to the process defined by Geertz (1994) first, to provide a rich picture of the role of hackathons in participatory medicine and second, to contribute evidence to the practise of running a hackathon. Some key originalities of our work include seeking more candid responses via self-serve interviews. Through this, controversially, we noted a marked emphasis on the creative process over concerns for privacy and ethics around the personal data cloud created by hackathon products. We build on existing theories of participatory medicine and emerging methodologies for conducting hackathons to provide evidence of the efficacy of the hacking approach both in terms of outcome and team dynamics. Through interviews, observation, twitter feeds and a pre-survey, we identify a number of success factors including (1) group size, (2) maturity of the idea, (3) level of involvement of a mentor, and (4) involvement of students. In addition we identify five skills identified by successful health hackathon participants; knowledge, patient focussed skills, analytical skills, software design skills and professional perspective. In common with previous studies we find that there are considerable social benefits that accrue in running a hackathon. Participants meet new people and learn first-hand of the challenges and opportunities provided by the skill sets and work environments of others. This work builds on the existing body of research concerning hackathons and in particular work in the context of participatory medicine
 
Nallaperuma, D., & De Silva, D. (2017). A Participatory Model for Multi-Document Health Information Summarisation. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1393
  
Abstract
Increasing availability and access to health information has been a paradigm shift in healthcare provision as it empowers both patients and practitioners alike. Besides awareness, significant time savings and process efficiencies can be achieved through effective summarisation of healthcare information. Relevance and accuracy are key concerns when generating summaries for such documents. Despite advances in automated summarisation approaches, the role of participation has not been explored. In this paper, we propose a new model for multi-document health information summarisation that takes into account the role of participation. The updated IS user participation theory was extended to explicate these roles. The proposed model integrates both extractive and abstractive summarisation processes with continuous participatory inputs to each phase. The model was implemented as a client-server application and evaluated by both domain experts and health information consumers. Results from the evaluation phase indicates the model is successful in generating relevant and accurate summaries for diverse audiences.
 
Nguyen, L., & Wickramasinghe, N. (2017). An Examination of the Mediating Role for a Nursing Information System. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1387

Abstract
This paper reports on findings from an examination of a nursing information system through the lens of Activity Theory. The information system was designed to support real-time nursing documentation in acute care hospital contexts. The objective was to enable superior nursing care to ensue by providing nurses with the opportunity to document patient care data into a tablet computer located at the patient bedside. The system was evaluated in a not-for-profit acute care hospital’s wards during its implementation. Nurses’ interactions with the system and their perceptions were collected and analysed through the lens of Activity Theory. The analysis highlighted nurses’ positive attitude towards the system and identified potential mediation capabilities as well as areas for improvements. Activity Theory was found to be useful to examine the positive and potentially problematic aspects of this new nursing information system.
 
Wang, L., & Ranasinghe, W. (2017). The decision-making role of the patient in localised prostate cancer treatment. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1382
 
Abstract
Our objective was to review the current literature on patient participation and decision-making in the treatment selection process for localised prostate cancer, and to evaluate capacity for improvement. Methods: 42 articles from our literature search were deemed eligible and relevant for review. We reviewed studies on all facets of the treatment decision-making process with most number of articles (16) on treatment preferences. Results: The majority of the patients prefer an active or collaborative role in decision-making. Patients are seeking information from a myriad of sources but the recommendation from their treating physician is often the most influential on the final decision. Radical prostatectomy is more likely to be selected in patients who view a cure for cancer as being of the utmost importance and radiation therapy is preferred in patients who are concerned about treatment side effects. Conclusion: Currently no ideal tool exists to assist patients in making informed treatment decisions that also takes into account patients’ values and preferences. We encourage collaborative partnership in a multidisciplinary setting to optimise this process and individualised risk-based decision-making tools may provide a better pathway to assist patients reach decisions. 

Bellucci, E., Dharmasena, L., Nguyen, L., & Calache, H. (2017). The effectiveness of SMS Reminders and the impact of patient characteristics on missed appointments in a public dental outpatient clinic. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3127/ajis.v21i0.1405
 
Abstract
This paper reports on the Failure To Attend (FTA) rate of appointments as well as patients following the implementation of SMS reminders in a public dental outpatient service. Given the ineffectiveness of the intervention and a highly representative patient’s profile, this paper identifies the demographic characteristics of patients who miss all of their appointments. Data on appointment attendance, patient demographics and dental service type was collected over a time period of 46 consecutive months. Using descriptive and inferential statistics (chi-square, two sample tests and Marascuilo procedure) we found the SMS intervention was ineffective in reducing the FTA rates. Further, patients associated with high rates of non-attendance exhibited one or more of the following characteristics: male; age 26 – 44; non-concession card holders; a person of Indigenous, local, Asian or African descent, and of refugee status, persons living in low socio-economic areas; and appointments in General Care and Student Clinics. Whilst the literature overwhelmingly attributes SMS reminders to improving the attendance rate of patients in outpatient clinics, our contradictory findings suggest a more targeted approach in settings whose patients exhibit strong characteristics associated with non-attendance.